It is not known how athletes internalize athletic experiences in their self-development. In this study, self-development was viewed as having two facets -internal and external- and internalization of external self-experiences was assumed to promote self-development. This study sought to explore the hypothesis that Dialogical Athletic Experiences (DAE) promote athletes' self-development together with the development of their internal self. DAE involve a dialogue with oneself in athletic experiences by turning attention to one's own body through dialogue with it. We developed a scale to measure athletes' DAE which includes four factors, and in study I examined the relationship between DAE and self-development among athletes. In study II, we examined through case studies and using the four previously identified factors the process which links DAE to internalization (self-development). The results revealed that DAE consisting of the four factors of “trusting attitude based on experiences”, “subjective attitude to experiences and athletics”, “awareness and insight”, and “attitude that one will face oneself through experiences” promote self-development. These results will contribute to the progression of studies on psychological development and personality development in athletes.
The purpose of this study was to verify the ability to perceive the motion of others from the viewpoint of motor control. We selected a ball-throwing task because it is one of the most skilled multi-joint movements and requires excellent coordination among the joints, and even though it is commonly observed in various sports. The stimulus was a stick picture movie featuring two movements -the normal throwing motion of a skilled thrower (model motion) and an altered throwing motion (delayed motion) developed by systematically manipulating the timing of the elbow extension. Ten highly skilled players volunteered to take part in the study. First, they observed the stimulus twice. Next, they threw the ball once using their usual throwing motion (usual throwing condition) and performed a ball-throwing task that reflected the difference between the model motion and the delayed motion (changed throwing condition). They alternately performed these trials three times. As compared to the usual throwing condition, the changed throwing condition showed a significant decrease in the temporal phase difference between the extension angular velocity at the elbow and the wrist (p<0.05). This change corresponded to the difference between the model motion and the delayed motion in the stimulus. The result of our experiment clearly shows that the participants detected the difference between the model motion and the delayed motion and controlled their movement.
This study examined the cognition characteristics and knowledge related to attacking play in varsity soccer players. To this end, two tasks and interviews were executed. The first task, a memory recall test, -involved examining the accuracy of the subject's memory by separating the soccer field into three areas. In the second task, the subjects watched the projection and answered by attacking play methods, and were interviewed about it. In this study, McPherson's methods (1987, 1999a, 1999b) were adopted for evaluating the quantitative knowledge of the players. Then, the knowledge based on the utterance data was digitized. The result of the first task showed that the experts memorized game situations accurately, especially in the situations they faced, which could be considered the cognition characteristics of experts. The results of the second task showed that the experts had many, varied, and detailed comments on the attacking methods. This implies a definitive difference in the knowledge of understanding situations and performance movements between high-and low-skilled players. In conclusion, the study suggested that experts enhanced their understanding of game situations and performance movements, compared to low-skilled players, and that this contributed to their recognition of situations and comprehensive thinking about attacking play.
The purpose of this article is to evaluate the collective efficacy of sport teams and to investigate whether the relationships among collective efficacy, the behavior of sportspersons during a game, and team performance differs depending on the type of sporting event. Hence, we developed and examined a scale of efficacy to measure the above relationships in the first part of the study and applied this instrument in the second part of the study. The results of the first part of the study indicated that our scale consisted of 10 items with one common factor and had internal consistency, stability, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. In the second part of the study, we conducted a simultaneous analysis of several groups in order to investigate the above relationships. The results showed that the relationships among collective efficacy, the behavior of sportspersons during a game, and team performance differed depending on the type of sporting event. From these results, we inferred that the impact of different sporting events should be considered while examining the effects of collective efficacy on team performance.