The purpose of this study was to examine developmental changes of identification in sports and exercise from childhood to adulthood. Participants were 204 elementary school students, 310 junior high school students, and 252 university students. A chi-squared test revealed significant differences among development stages in the occurrence of identification and the ratios between different models. In particular, the occurrence of identification decreased by developmental stage. Furthermore, the results indicated that boys at elementary and junior high school stage often chose a “famous athlete” as their identification model, whereas girls at all developmental stages mainly chose a ‘friend,” “senior student,” or “teacher/coach” as their identification model. Cluster analysis was also conducted to determine the pattern of identification. This analysis revealed four patterns of identification: “Low Identification (LI)”, “High Identification (HI)”, “Positive Evaluation (PE)”, and “Emotional Bond (EB).” Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to establish the relation between identification pattern (LI, HI, PE, EB or Non-Identification (NI) group) and intrinsic motivation to participate in exercise and sports by developmental stage. ANOVA revealed that the scores of intrinsic motivation for the HI, PE, and EB groups were significantly higher than those for the NI group in all developmental stages. Moreover, the scores of intrinsic motivation for the HI group were significantly different from those for the other groups in elementary and junior high school students. Hence, the results of this study suggest that intrinsic motivation to participate in exercise and sports is in part related to an individual's identification in all developmental stages.
The aim of this study was to develop an appraisal scale of required life skills for athletes. Scale development was conducted through preliminary and main research on college student athletes. We considered 10 dimensions of life skills based on coaches' practical experience, and used this to create as a hypothetical model of required life skills for athletes. In the preliminary research, the factor analysis was conducted with the collected data of 257 college student athletes (189 males and 68 females) to select list of items to assess life skills acquisition level. In the main research, the factor structure was identified by factor analysis using data obtained from 513 college student athletes (330 males and 183 females). The results showed that this scale covers 10 factors: stress management, setting goals, thinking carefully, appreciating others, communicating, maintaining etiquette and manners, always making one's best effort, taking responsibility for one's own behavior, being humble, and maintaining physical health and wellbeing. Additionally, the results indicated that (1) the hypothetical model of the study reflected actual psychological and behavioral characteristics of college student athletes; (2) the factor structure of this scale fitted the data well; (3) each dimension of life skills and total score were moderately reliable and valid. This scale was named the “Appraisal Scale of Required Life Skills for College Student Athletes”.
The purpose of this study was to discuss the meaning of psychological counseling to an athlete in his effort to develop mental toughness as well as the meaning of talking about his body through the counseling process. Psychological counseling was conducted for 14 sessions over a 3-month treatment period for an injury. During counseling, the subject spoke mainly about his injury and body movement. Talking about his body provided the athlete with insight on his body movement and playing style and enabled him to discover points for movement improvement. Finally, he was able to develop new actions. The counseling process was then dicussed, and the main findings were as follows: 1. An attitude to keep listening to athletes talking about their body supports their efforts to attain independence. This psychological support also enables a change in attitude toward competition and assists with the development of mental toughness. 2. Giving athletes the opportunity to talk about their body and body movement has the same effect as image training and promotes the development of subjectivity in the athlete's individual way. 3. Listening to how athletes describe their body for maintaining the mind-body connection provides effective psychological support. These findings will be useful for the psychological support of athletes in the future.
In the present study we aimed to confirm that no antagonistic relation exists in the expression between positive and negative affects in male university athletes, and to examine the relation of the positive affect in coping with an aggravating burnout tendency. The subjects for analysis were 456 male university athletes belonging to athletic clubs. We evaluated the positive and negative affects that were characteristic of these athletes by the Japanese version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) scales. By making an inter-group comparison of the burnout tendency that was classified by the two affects evaluated by the Athletic Burnout Inventory, we obtained the following findings: 1) It was confirmed that, even among male university athletes, the expressions of positive and negative affects did not show any mutually antagonistic relationship. 2) It was suggested that the relation of the positive affect toward the aggravated burnout tendency acted in a suppressive manner. 3) The athletes who usually had a higher level of the expression of negative affect were prone to rather show a suppressive effect from the positive affect upon the burnout tendency. This was observed for all the factors, such as a feeling of emotional exhaustion toward a sports event, a decrease in the individual sense of accomplishment, a lack of communication with his teammates, and a confused self-commitment to a sports event.