In the previous study of “Effects of subliminal mere exposure in the case of the dress”, we found, that the mere exposure effect had a tendency to appear more clearly when an object is offered subliminally, and that this was also true in the case of dress. In this study, we increased the subliminal exposure frequency from 20 times to 40 times, since it was expected that the subliminal experiment method of a momentary exposure needs less time and less burden for the experiment. We conducted three experiments in order to determine whether the favorable impression continues to increase when the number of exposure times increases, and under how many exposure frequency conditions the mere exposure effect appears the most. Experiment 1 was conducted subliminally (in a less than 50% visible condition). Experiment 2 was conducted consciously (in a 60-90% visible condition, avoiding a 100% visible condition). Experiment 3 was conducted subliminally without recognition of the experiment. As a common result of Experiment 1 and Experiment 3, the mere exposure effect appeared the most clearly at 20 times, and the favorable impression decreased at frequencies over 30 times. Among the three experiments, the mere exposure effect appeared the most in Experiment 3. Lastly, we examined whether the object pictures were valid by means of Latin square design. Although a significant difference was recognized in the scale of “friendliness” (Scale 6), since no other significant difference was seen in scales of other favorable impressions (Scales 3, 7 and 11), it may be considered that the object picture is valid.
The taste intensity (taste efficacy) of either gel samples alone or sol samples alone has been examined in previous studies. In the present study, by contrast, the concentration of potato starch in solutions of taste compounds was varied from 0.16 to 20.00%, thereby making it possible to examine the intensity of sweetness and saltiness in both gel and sol samples under identical conditions. On the transition of sweet and salty sol samples to gel samples, decreases in taste intensity were found in this study. In addition, significant differences were found in taste intensity on comparison of a large number of pairs of gel and sol samples. Therefore, we may conclude that there are significant differences in taste intensity between gel and sol samples. The results of the rupture stress measurements of the starch-added sucrose samples showed that rupture stress rose markedly on the transition from sol to gel. Taking the results of this study together, we conclude that when a taste sample shifts from a sol to a gel and the viscosity and hardness of the sample increases, then the human taste sensation is weakened concomitantly.
Potatoes, eggplants, and tomatoes, the members of the Solanaceae plant family include glycoalkaloid. Glycoalkaloid is in the family of alkaloids that has a bitter taste. The process of making potato chips decreases the amount of glycoalkaloid by about 90％. Also, glycoalkaloid makes potatoes bitter, so the amount of glycoalkaloid affects the taste of potato chips. In this study, we examine by sensory test the relationship between the amount of glycoalkaloid and the taste of potato chips. We found that the amount of glycoalkaloid affects the bitter taste, but does not affect the density.