The porous structure of bread crumbs is an important factor that contributes to the quality of breads. However, little work has been done on quantifying the orientation of the porous structure of bread crumbs. The objective of this study was to obtain an indicator of quality control of breads by examining the relationships among crumb grains of commercial breads using digital image analysis by a two-dimensional discrete Fourier transform (2D-DFT) method, as well as by studying bread crumb firmness and density. The pore size of Pullman breads was smallest in the central region of the sliced sections, the frequency distribution of power-density spectra being obtained using a ring mask. Open-top breads had similar characteristics as the ones described above. On the other hand, Pullman breads showed a clear orientation of porous structure in angular distributions of the spectra. Only the central region showed any characteristic orientation of pores in open-top breads. Moreover, the central regions of each slice in both breads had the softest crumbs. In addition, the differences were seen in the density of crumbs in open-top breads. It was found that information on size and orientation of pores and cell wall thickness could be obtained from digital image analysis, and by studying bread crumb firmness and crumb density.
Human beings have five senses. However, how the information from the senses becomes integrated into perceptions has not been clarified yet. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the mechanism responsible for the integration of this information. The purpose of this research is to clarify the relation between visual information and physical information in haptic modality. Three experiments are conducted using a haptic mouse to examine the amplitude and waveform. As a result of the experiments, it is determined that the amplitude and the waveform are important in integrating haptic information into visual information, and a saw-tooth wave is suitable for making a smooth impression.
We found a significant correlation between people's preference for Japanese miso and their susceptibility to mental and/or physical stress. We selected two kinds of Japanese miso, red miso and white miso. A sensory evaluation based on ANOVA revealed that miso preference significantly correlates to a mental feeling of depression (p=0.026). The feeling of depression among the examinees with a preference for red miso was lower level than that among those who had a preference for white miso. Furthermore, we attempted to classify the degree of depression into 3 levels in order to make a crosstable. Another evaluation (chi-square) on the table showed almost the same results (p=0.041). The results seem to be due to the characteristics of the ingredients of red miso.