The effects of non heating Monascus koji (NHM) on the microstructure and physical properties of bread were investigated. As NHM concentration increased, gas cells in the bread became larger, noticeably damaging its microstructure. The specific volume of bread made with NHM was greater than that of bread made without NHM up to a concentration of 2.0%. However, the specific volume of bread made with 5.0% NHM was less than that of bread made with 2.0% NHM. Compared with bread made without NHM, hardness decreased and cohesiveness increased as the concentration of NHM increased. The results of sensory evaluation indicated significantly that breads containing 0.5% and 1.0% NHM were highly evaluated in terms of all six items investigated, and bread containing 2.0% NHM was highly evaluated in terms of taste, texture and overall evaluation.
The synaesthetic relation between olfaction and color has been investigated. In order to confirm it, we conducted a fragrance sniff test with 37 fragranced shampoos among 80 Japanese women and analyzed the results by using chromaticity to assign a color such as red, green, yellow and blue in addition to the color palette that Senoo and Motonaga (2008) had developed. The analysis indicated that the highly accepted fragrances tend to have a higher chromaticity value of red and a lower chromaticity value of blue. In addition, it suggested differences in consumer expectations toward fragrance cross-product categories as well as the association between color and attributes.
The relation among evaluations in eating quality affects one's “desire to purchase”, “sense of safety”, and “sense of well-being”. The purpose of this study was to clarity the relation among evaluations of the eating quality of raw ham, as well as to determine how the relation influences one's “desire to purchase”, “sense of safety”, and “sense of well-being.” In this study, the samples were four raw hams which were very similar in terms of chemical composition, texture, and price. The result of principle component analysis indicated the importance of the “general evaluation by ‘umami’ and good texture” and “a moist texture as judged by the degree of saltiness” of the ham. The result of discriminant analysis indicated that the “general evaluation by ‘umami’ and good texture” affected one's “desire to purchase” and “sense of safety”, and the “moist texture as judged by the degree of the saltiness” affected the “sense of well-being.” In other words, the relation among evaluations of eating quality was affected by the purchasing evaluations.