Sake yeasts are classified as foaming yeasts, which are hydrophobic, and non-foaming yeasts, which are hydrophilic. In this study the influence and function of using Sake yeasts for bread are clarified. Breads fermented by bread yeasts, foaming yeasts, and non-foaming yeasts were examined by texture properties, microstructure, and sensory evaluation. 1) Breads fermented by bread yeasts made with butter had the largest volume among bread fermented by bread yeasts, while bread fermented by non-foaming yeasts had the smallest volume. However, specific volume of bread made without butter were each 4.5 value. 2) The color of bread fermented by foaming yeasts was similar to bread fermented by bread yeasts. As for color of the bread fermented by non-foaming yeasts, that of bread fermented by bread yeasts was able to be identified. 3) The hardness of three kinds of bread in which butter was added was not significantly different. The hardest bread without butter was bread fermented by foaming yeasts, and the softest was bread fermented by non-foaming yeasts. The cohesive property of breads tended to be lowest for breads fermented by foaming yeasts. 4) Differences in the microstructure of breads were the shape and size of gas cell. The gas cells of bread fermented by non-foaming yeasts were round and small. The gas cells in breads without butter were larger and had a flatter oval shape than those with butter. The inside of the gluten netstructure of breads without butter was observed as rough and contained a lot of gaps. 5) The results of sensory evaluation showed that the three types of bread could not be differentiated.
Ultrasonic pulse Doppler profiling, rheology and sensory evaluation were used to determine the effects of a mixture of agar and gelatin on the velocity of bolus passing through the pharynx as well as the physical characteristics based on the number of mastication times. Mixed agar and gelatin(0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) gel samples (3, 6, 9 and 12g) were masticated 5, 10, 30, or 50 times, respectively. Although the maximum velocity of 100% agar gel decreased with increasing the number of mastication times, that of 100% gelatin gel remained high. The hardness and maximum velocity of mixed agar and gelatin gels were obtained with 100% agar gel and 100% gelatin gel. As for mixed gels of 75% agar and 25% gelatin or 50% agar and 50% gelatin, a 6g mixed gel sample masticated 10, 30 and 50 times, and a 9g mixed gel sample masticated 30 and 50 times decreased in hardness and maximum velocity compared with 100% gelatin gel. From these results, the samples which can be swallowed easily were considered to be mixed gel of 50～75% agar and 25～50% gelatin. In these mixed gels, the change of hardness was very small and the increase of the maximum velocity was suppressed.
An image reproducing method based on human characteristics has previously been reported (Kajitani & Watanabe, 2005, In Japanese). Another method was proposed to make clear how a reference stimulus located at the same distance and angle from a reference sphere affects the relative apparent size of objects (Kajitani, 2009, In Japanese). This research aims to make clear how the angular distance between a standard stimulus and a comparison stimulus affects the apparent relative size of an object. For this, the relative apparent size of two reference spheres and a target sphere are measured. From the experiment, it was clarified that the angular distance significantly correlated to the apparent size. Therefore, when reproducing images, we need to consider the sight distance and the angular distance between objects.