We investigated the effects of temperature on the physical properties and swallowing characteristics of mashed potato samples with added oil and fats. The firmness of all samples was evaluated soft as the temperature increased, and a similar tendency was observed for the hardness of textural properties. The thickness was evaluated significantly little as the temperature increased in the mashed potato sample with added oil (PO), but no significant difference was observed in the samples with added solid fats (PF and PS) at any temperature. In the PO sample, the thickness was related viscosity of the oil, whereas in the samples with added fats, the presence of a solid fat portion was suggested. Easy of swallowing was found to significantly easy as the temperature increased in the PO sample. The PF sample presented significantly easy at 50°C relative to 20°C, but significant differences were not observed at any temperature in the PS sample. In PO sample, easy of swallowing was influenced by the viscosity of the oil, and in the PF and PS samples, easy of swallowing was likely related to the temperature-dependent melting behavior of solid fats, which at body temperature exhibit the apparent dynamic viscosity η′app.
This study was designed to examine the aesthetic impression of vertical strokes in the block style of calligraphy. A pair of vertical strokes in characters have been analyzed for their lower parts on both sides. Regarding the relationship between the vertical strokes, a vertical stroke on the right side is more accentuated (i. e., longer) than that on the left side. The reasons for this accentuation have been studied from an aesthetic perspective. To understand the aesthetic impression objectively, an evaluation measure has been adopted ; it is composed of three elements : proportional beauty, activity, and potency. These elements were constituted in our earlier study. A survey was conducted at a public calligraphy exhibition, and participants were chosen randomly from those present. Of the persons selected for the survey, 66.7% had some experience in calligraphy, while 33.3% did not. As a result, higher appreciation levels were noted for characters with accentuated vertical strokes on the right sides.