On Sensory Analysis, descriptive scales are frequently used with the Japanese qualitative words (most of them are adverbs). This study was to verify the ordinal efficacy of previous studies (hedonic scale construction by Yoshikawa, 1973 ; Akagi et. al, 1985) by means of the scoring method. Because of qualitative words used differently in either the positive or negative direction, selected tasks were examined first: I) which words do you use in the positive meaning and II) in the negative meaning, about 48 words previously reported, then III) scoring task(0 to 100 from a positive integer) about 21 words. Subjects (not expert panel), were 1,180 people from 15 to 53 years old (below 22 years old occupying about 96%), in 1993-1996. Although the different survey methods, there were differences: 1) “mottomo”, “hijouni”, and “kiwamete” are not to distinguish in negative expression, 2) the difference between “kanari”, and these three words, 3) the differences to “soutou”, “totemo”, “jituni”, “tokuni”, and “taisou”, 4) “hikakuteki”, “wariaini”, and “nakanaka” are independent, 5) “yaya”, “ikuraka”, “chotto”, “jakkan”, and “sukosi” are not statistically different in 95%CI. Then this study proposed a 9-point hedonic (ordinal) scale: “hijouni”, “totemo”, “yaya”, “wazukani”, “dochirademonai (sukidemokiraidemonai)”, “wazukani”, “yaya”, “totemo”, “hijouni”. In case of interval scale, it is desirable to use with numerical values.
This research was performed for a wide range of generations, from schoolchildren to aged people, in order to reveal the relationship between olfactory sensitivity and age or food preference. Two hundred eighty persons (aged 6-76 year-old) were randomly recruited as panelists from the visitors to the Event of the Scent held at Health Sciences Museum in Hiroshima in 2000. The panelists were presented 6 types of odor which remind of genuine materials (rose, lemon, cheese, matsutake, cinnamon, and grape) and given some questions about them including odor intensity, preference and discrimination of the genuine materials. The panelists were also asked their preference of food. As a result, significant correlation was found between odor sensitivity and age or preference. The discrimination ability to the genuine materials grew along with the increase of age except a group of more than 60 year-old, although it depended on the types of odors. For food preference, low discrimination ability was observed in a group of panelists who liked confectioneries and most of them belonged to a group of 13-18 year old. It was also shown that the panelists who did not like vegetables had low discrimination ability.
Japanese chestnuts are known to have pellicle difficult to peel off. To make the task easier at home and in commercial processing, some methods of pretreatment have been tried out. To evaluate each method, the sensory analysis technique has been applied. Three candidate pretreatments chosen were (1) soaking in boiling water, (2) steaming, and (3) frying. The panel composed of 11 female students removed the pellicle of pretreated chestnuts, and graded the easiness. In addition, the time needed has been measured to remove the shell and peel off the pellicle of each pretreated chestnut and untreated one. The frying method was found to be the best. It reduced the time needed by 60% compared to that for untreated samples. The steaming method was also significantly effective. Soaking in boiling water makes no effect for this purpose.