In order to elucidate the deodorizing efficacy of a titanium oxide-type deodorant, perceived changes in refrigerator odors were assessed by subjects using 13 contrasting pairs of adjectives on an 11-point scale (from −5 to +5). This assessment by inquiry was conducted three times: once immediately before placing the deodorant in the refrigerator, again after keeping it in the refrigerator for one week, and lastly at one week after removing it from the refrigerator. The obtained sensory evaluation spectrum corresponding to the changes of scores between the first inquiry and the second inquiry (second minus first) showed an upward tendency with a positive value in terms of the 13 descriptors. This implies that the odors were lessened by the use of the deodorant. The respective spectrum (third minus first) at the removal was just the reverse. This implies that the odors were intensified by removing the deodorant. Here, the sensory evaluation spectrum was represented by a bar graph, in which the mean of the foregoing impression difference was plotted against the descriptors. When the statistical significance of each of the 13 descriptors was assessed by Student's t-test, 11 or more of the descriptors were regarded as significant among 13 descriptors at a probability value of p＜0.05.
The substitution of potassium chloride (KCl) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) for sodium chloride (NaCl)on the mechanical properties and salt intensities of 0.8% and 1.2% agar gels and 1.2% and 1.6% gellan gum gels containing 1.0% NaCl were examined using a physical measuring apparatus and a sensory evaluation. There was no correlation between salt concentration and rupture stress, rupture strain or rupture energy of agar gel. The rupture stresses of 1.2% and 1.6% gellan gum gels containing 0.5% NaCl and 0.5% CaCl2 were significantly smaller than that of gellan gum gel containing 1.0% NaCl (p＜0.001). The syneresis of gellan gum gel with NaCl and CaCl2 increased with increasing substitution ratio of CaCl2 for NaCl (p＜0.001). The salt intensities of agar gel or gellan gum gel with 0.5% NaCl and 0.5% CaCl2 were found to be smaller than those of gels with 1.0% NaCl (p＜0.001). The decreases of salt intensities of agar gels and gellan gum gels may be due to the bitter taste of KCl or CaCl2 rather than the chemical and physical restraints of cations.
We investigated the effect of music on emotions that were induced by two essential oils (peppermint and lavender). Participants (n=16) sniffed the stimuli of peppermint and lavender, and evaluated the emotional values while two pieces of music, one delightful and one gloomy, were presented. We found that the emotional values for the fragrances of these olfactory stimuli were influenced by the emotions induced by the music: delightful music enhanced the delightful mood induced by one of the essential oils (lavender), and gloomy music reduced the delightful mood induced by both oils.