Japan Journal of Sport Sociology
Online ISSN : 2185-8691
Print ISSN : 0919-2751
ISSN-L : 0919-2751
Volume 2
Displaying 1-8 of 8 articles from this issue
  • John D. Horne
    1994 Volume 2 Pages 1-22
    Published: March 10, 1994
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
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  • Hideaki Hirano
    1994 Volume 2 Pages 23-33
    Published: March 10, 1994
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
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  • “Dan-kyu Seido”, the Japanese System of Grading in Sports
    Tetsuo Nishiyama
    1994 Volume 2 Pages 35-51
    Published: March 10, 1994
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    In this paper, the word Interpretation refers to the following three events.
    1) As Japan imported modern sports, developed in the Britich public schools and based on the spirit of “amateurism”, during the Meiji period and after, the various martial arts were restructured into “bu-do” based on the spirit of “busi-do” and incorporated into the system of formal education. In this process, the “dan-kyu seido, ” the Japanese system of grading in sports, was separated from the “Iemoto” system, which had supported the Japanese body culture until then, and redefined as a device to support the form of modern sport called “Bu-do”. 2) This “dan-kyu seido” then began to be used for the importation of foreign sports such as skiing. 3) Through the use of the “dan-kyu” system, the typical bourgeois sport of skiing was transformed into a popular sport.
    These three interpretations I feel provide examples which support Hargreaves' ideas on the relations between sport and society. His hegemony theory was born from a criticism of Marxist ideology theory enslaved to the base/superstructure model. By interpreting sports on the same level as other social practices such as religion, politics, and economics, his theory frees us from both the stance that sports are merely the “opiate” of the masses in a capitalist society, and that unconditionally acclaims sport as a universal mode of personal development.
    This paper can be read as a post-evolutionist history of sport, but it is no accident that it also serves to deconstruct the ethnocentric myth of Japanese uniqueness.
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  • Hidesato Takahashi
    1994 Volume 2 Pages 53-66
    Published: March 10, 1994
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    The purpose of this study is to reveal, from the viewpoint of ritual, styles of collective cheering repeatedly performed at professional baseball games in a stadium. The procedure of this study is, first, to identify a common style observed at nine games in the Hiroshima City Ball Park, and second, to investigate a rhythm pattern of the cheering using the symbol-structure approach of Kitazawa.
    This study revealed that:
    (1) the collective cheering was performed as a token of the boundary of time and space in a game. Also, according to the situation of the game, the collective cheering utilized tools such as drums, bells, trumpets, whistles and megaphones played in a stylized way. What caused stylization and repetition of the cheering behaviors was the process of sports itself ordered by certain rules.
    (2) the cheering sections took an important part in the collective cheering. Right, center and left cheering sections simultaneously played the march tunes peculiar to each player. The cheering sections aroused the collective energies of the spectators by using information about the situation of the game.
    (3) the standard rhythm pattern of the cheering was the same one as “Binzasara”, which is played in agricultual rituals. This pattern represents feminine gender whose principal beat is three or seven, and is in a form of “Uchinarashi”, which is used as an appeal to gods from this world. This may suggest that the cheering at professional baseball games is a kind of expression of magical behaviors based on Japanese mythical thinking.
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  • Takeshi Yoshida
    1994 Volume 2 Pages 67-79
    Published: March 10, 1994
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    Studies on athlete's burnout (burnout syndrome) have been conducted since the latter half of 1980s. However we have not understood as yet what have become of burnout athletes (athletes identified as cases of burnout in preceding studies) since.
    The purposes of this study are to clarify the transformation process of athlete's burnout through non-directive (free) interviews to 5 burnout athletes and to consider these findings from the new viewpoints of the theory on sport socialization which are one of socialization via sport on and after adolescence and one of paying attention to socializee's active side.
    The main findings obtained are summarized as follows:
    1) Five burnout athletes each displayed positive subjecthood (autonomy) because they got each emotional support, and overcame the burnout. It seems they built up the subjecthood and identity through such process. That is, they accomplished resocialization via sport.
    2) Athletes need to get some emotional support to overcome or to prevent burnout. But in case that they can't get it within close range, they need to display (or build up) the subjecthood by themselves. The effective keys for them to do so are to reflect on themselves actively and to expand the sociality of their each self in point of space or time.
    3) In the theory on sport socialization, various problems besides burnout exist not only in boyhood but on and after adolescence. Accordingly the object of the study on socialization via sport must be expanded to adolescence and adulthood, and it is important to analize various aspects on resocialization in sport contexts.
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  • Keiji Matsuda, Hitoshi Shimazaki
    1994 Volume 2 Pages 81-94
    Published: March 10, 1994
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    This paper deals with “Play” for the purpose of clearing up the meaning of sport, which is socially held in common, by analyzing a story comic “TOUCH”.
    “TOUCH” had been serialized on “SHUKAN SHOUNEN SUNDAY” from 1981 to 1986. This story comic had a great popularity those days.
    It is composed of “sport as story” and “sport as episode”. “Sport as story” corresponds to “subjectivity” and “sport as episode” to “non-subjectivity”.
    Sport has usually been analyzed in the aspect of Play. But, it is impossible to analyze “sport as episode” in that aspect. Because the present Play doesn't contain the perspective of “non-subjectivity”.
    As a result of the analysis of “TOUCH” we found the following points:
    1. “Play” contains both perspectives of “subjectivity” and “non-subjectivity”.
    2. Meaning of sport is divided into two, “sport as story” and “sport as episode”, according to the perspectives. And it lies under the control of “sport as story” at the present time.
    This paper leaves much to be further descussed. We emphasize, however, that it is important to continue analyzing the story comic for the purpose of clearing up the meaning of sport.
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  • An Exploratory Study of Justification
    Haruo Higashimoto
    1994 Volume 2 Pages 95-101
    Published: March 10, 1994
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
    The purpose of this study is to explore “excuses” made by professional baseball players and their team managements in justifying performances and administrative decisions through their contract negotiation. Comments in newspapers were analyzed for specific content analysis.
    “Excuses” are made not only after the actions have been made, but sometimes before. The latter is referred to as “vocabularies of motives” (Mills, 1940).
    This study investigated the relationship between one of the most prominent baseball players and his team management in his salary negotiation. Typical Japanese values were revealed in reviewing vocabularies used in the press conferences, both on the part of the player and the management.
    In summary, there seems to be a “stock” of vocabularies of “excuses” in sport groups, or sub-groups. It is assumed that they are learned and shared by the members and therefore they are specific, both to the sport and the society in which they are played.
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  • Hajime Hirai
    1994 Volume 2 Pages 103-106
    Published: March 10, 1994
    Released on J-STAGE: May 30, 2011
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