This paper examines the television coverage of the 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. The paper first summarizes the income generated from the sale of broadcast rights. The fees paid by NBCUniversal, the holder of the rights to Rio 2016 in the USA, have consistently provided 1/4 of the International Olympic Committee’s total revenue. Rio was the 15th Games broadcast by NBC, the most of any broadcaster in America. NBCUniversal broadcast 2,084 hours of linear programming across 11 networks, and live streamed 4,500 hours via NBCOlympics.com and the NBC Sports app.
This paper presents several issues that previous research has raised concerning NBC’s coverage of the Olympics. It also introduces some criticisms that appeared in the US media during the Rio Games. Although there is only a small time difference between Rio and the US, little live coverage was provided by the flagship network NBC. The prerecorded coverage was heavily edited and packaged, and it focused mainly on American athletes.
The producers of NBC’s Olympic coverage claim that most viewers are not sports fans and prefer a packaged story. It can be assumed that NBC’s policy is to maximize revenue from the games by attracting nonfans to its free-to-air channels with packaged stories (thereby increasing income from ad fees through higher ratings) and forcing fans who want more of the competition to fee-charging channels and sites.
The paper concludes by pointing out the role of the Internet and social media in opening up discourse surrounding the Olympics.
This article aims to elucidate the conflict of social action between “spectating” and “viewing” sports. After providing a definition of watching, spectating sport in a stadium and viewing it through the media will be compared with a focus on Ekidens and Marathons. This will be achieved by conducting an analysis of cheering acts accompanied by the act of spectating.
Spectating live sports events is a social action in which people pursue “excitement”. This “excitement” can be seen in challenges which are generated by the competitiveness of performance and the unpredictable processes of the game, and narratives in the game development.
Transforming the reality of sports via the framework of TV creates a media reality. To heighten the reality, it is down-keyed into the original: the sports reality. In addition, thanks to the latest TV technologies, details that cannot be seen in the actual stadium are broadcast, which differentiate from the sports reality. They are, however, re-created details through the medium of television, not those selected by spectators on their own initiative. Furthermore, the atmosphere one feels in a stadium and the physical sensation of being looked at by the players cannot be experienced through the media, in which the inter-subjectivity of ‘looking’ and ‘being looked at’ hardly exists.
Moreover, cheering evoked by spectating stimulates one’s excitement. Particularly, the collective performance of cheering resonates in people, creating a sense of unity and quickening their pulse. On the other hand, in Japan the situation exists where a cheering party plays an important role in tranquilizing the excited supporters. Expressing the enthusiasm obtained by cheering is only allowed in the extraordinary world so that if they find ordinariness in it, the excitement is soon tranquilized. Likewise, for Ekiden and Marathon, roads for daily use are turned into an extraordinary state for racing, but the cheering is tranquilized, returning the roads to normal once the runners go past the spectators.
The conflict between “spectating” and “viewing” sports will never come to an end.
Mild disabilities have been recently focused in the field of disability studies. People with mild disabilities could clarify the function of sports for people with disabilities. Sports activities of people with mild disabilities were focused in this study to illustrate the function of sports for people that cannot be defined as being disabled by using the standards sports disability, and who are not supported from outside the sport space by the “abled”. Interviews were conducted with two athletes suffering from stuttering, based on the above perspective. Results indicated that arbitrary definition between abled and disabled people made it difficult for people with mild disability to participate in sports. For example, they have disadvantages in communicating with their couches and teammates and sometime even get mocked because of their disability. Moreover, playing “abled” sports by people with mild disabilities could be an opportunity to gain social recognition, in spite of difficulties. People with mild disabilities can feel recognized as when they are successful in performing and competing in sports, despite having felt displaced during their school days. It is concluded that sports can function as a chance to gain social recognition for people with mild disabilities, as long as they compete and perform well, despite the difficulties and disadvantages they face in the sports space for the “abled”.
This paper examines a mechanism of course determination by admission on sports recommendation from a strong high school baseball team to university. And it clarifies that players who belong to a strong baseball team go on university via their coaches’ social network. In order to clarify the mechanism we use two kinds of data. These are called macro and micro data. Especially the micro data are collected based on field-work and interview research from high school baseball club. It is mainly used to clarify the mechanism. We can show detail of the mechanism by admission on sports recommendation. In terms of analyzing interview and micro data, we found that baseball coaches’ social network between high school and university are important so as to determine players’ course after graduate from high school. The network is realized every year with specific high school and university. Finally this paper found that coaches’ social network makes it possible for their team to build and continue a strong team. We can call the specific career pass for athletes who go on university by admission on sports recommendation Career Formation through a Club Activity. But since this paper covered only one case, it is not able to show the whole shape of this career formation. We need other data to clarify it.