Japan Journal of Sport Sociology
Online ISSN : 2185-8691
Print ISSN : 0919-2751
ISSN-L : 0919-2751
Volume 26, Issue 2
Displaying 1-5 of 5 articles from this issue
  • Masataka KASHIHARA
    Article type: research-article
    2018 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 9-23
    Published: September 30, 2018
    Released on J-STAGE: September 30, 2019
     The purpose of this paper is to analyze the items that influence Hawk-Eye, a computer system that has been making line judgements in tennis and other sports since 2006. This technology is different from other judging systems in two ways: Hawk-Eye itself serves as the judge instead of a referee and it provides justification for its judgment.
     Hawk-Eye causes a kind of fetishism. Developers explain the mechanism by which their judging technology functions on their website and indicate that it has an error margin of 2.6 mm; however, the same website shows a picture where Hawk-Eye says, “1 mm IN.” Though such a call is obviously unreliable, even the developer, who knows better than anyone that Hawk-Eye is not perfect, mistakes “1 mm IN” for a correct call and even celebrates it. Such actions are referred to as “Hawk-Eye fetishism” in this paper. Hawk-Eye fetishism came into being because of its 3D video. To know where the footprint of a ball is, only a picture (2D) is necessary. Hawk-Eye’s 3D video is redundant, but its visual abilities can lend it an almost transcendental quality. When watching the 3D video, we are more willing to accept Hawk-Eye’s call as correct.
     To explain another reason why Hawk-Eye is so desirable, this paper introduces the concept of finite games. The goal of a sport as a finite game is to earn a victory and finish the game. A finite game requires not only correct but absolute calls. Only Hawk-Eye can provide this.
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  • Capturing Emersion of the Living Body of Circus Performers
    Bernard ANDRIEU, Akira KURASHIMA
    Article type: research-article
    2018 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 25-53
    Published: September 30, 2018
    Released on J-STAGE: September 30, 2019
     Who controls the movements of circus performers? An acrobat in the air can subconsciously coordinate her body to extended her hand with such precision that it could be grasped by her partner, relying only on information captured in her peripheral vision. Furthermore, even an acrobat’s vision is not consciously controlled, because she can direct her eyes without voluntary attention. As such, mutual visual contact with her partner could be maintained throughout her jump.
     It is thanks to the living body (corps vivant) that such high-level coordination of the whole body, including the eyes, is possible without conscious effort. The pre-reflexive and pre-motor living body makes instantaneous decisions necessary to ecologically adapt itself to the ever-changing environment. However, we are aware of such decisions only retroactively because of the 450-ms time-lag separating the activation of the brain and its perception by consciousness. In addition, factors such as subjective body image and everyday frames of consciousness further obscure the living body.
     In our research project on the National Center for Circus Arts (CNAC), which was launched in 2013, we used various techniques to overcome the above difficulties. They included body-mounted GoPro cameras, selfconfrontation interviews, and philosophical workshops involving the performers. We were thus able to capture the emersion into consciousness of what the living bodies of the performers produced subconsciously during their actions. Based on these findings, we consider the possibility of emersiology, a discipline dedicated to the study of emersion, and its social implications.
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  • Yoshihiko ONUMA
    Article type: research-article
    2018 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 55-65
    Published: September 30, 2018
    Released on J-STAGE: September 30, 2019
     This study examines the significance and limitations of self-monitoring in competitive running in runners’ self-tracking devices, and the data provided by contemporary marathons.
     The monitoring equipment’s use by beginner runners is analyzed during training. A GPS-equipped running watch is used by novice runners and plays an important role in ensuring the completion of the marathon. This allows monitoring the pace of running and exercise load. The marathon is called a game of distribution; such watches have a record of fairly accurate predictions on final times. However, to properly recover, runners must self-monitor and consciously organize their lives, including choosing supplements and setting training times.
     The marathon itself is a monitoring system. The runner attaches an IC chip before the race. The recording system that uses this chip enables to expand the event scale and provide information, not only to runners but also others. This allows such uses as sharing and comparing runners’ records.
     Last, the relationship between runners and event monitoring is discussed. In real time, runners make use of information provided by running watches, but they receive no information from the event monitoring system. This information is only available ex post facto. Only spectators and organizers can monitor runners during the event, from a bird’s eye’s view. Time lags and differences in semantic content between runners and those monitoring them occur. This is a limit of monitoring in running.
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  • Background to the Maintenance of the Disposal System with Joint Liability
    Naoki TAKEMURA
    2018 Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 67-81
    Published: September 30, 2018
    Released on J-STAGE: October 15, 2018
     When misconducts break out in the high school baseball teams, not the high school concerned but high school baseball federation imposes sanctions on the people concerned. Among such sanctions, this study especially focuses on the disposal rule of “joint liability,” which cannot be seen in other sports, and tries to clarify why such sanctions exist through its historical process and its relation to the social structure.
     Before the Second World War, there was no national organization supervising high school baseball, but it was mainly private media organizations that hosted the tournaments. However, the Ministry of Education was concerned about the media trying to commercialize the event and about the students overemphasizing the competitive aspect, and therefore enforced the “Baseball Control Order” in 1932.
     Since then, high school baseball is held under national control. However, this control system was introduced just to prevent private media from making use of baseball as show business, and there was no statement on disposal through “joint liability” for misconducts in the articles.
     After the war, it was finally established by the democratically founded organization, an intermediary group between the nation and individual, in the Student Baseball Charter, which had been enacted as basic outline. This rule imposes sanctions not only to the person who caused trouble but also to the whole baseball club as one unit, which gives us unreasonable and feudal impression in the modern society. However, it can be also seen as self-regulation of Japanese high school baseball against national control.
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