Japan Journal of Sport Sociology
Online ISSN : 2185-8691
Print ISSN : 0919-2751
ISSN-L : 0919-2751
Volume 27, Issue 2
Displaying 1-4 of 4 articles from this issue
Special Issues
  • [in Japanese]
    2019 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 3-4
    Published: September 30, 2019
    Released on J-STAGE: October 15, 2020
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  • Kimio ITO
    2019 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 5-15
    Published: September 30, 2019
    Released on J-STAGE: October 15, 2020
     The modern sports have developed under the masculine hegemony. But now historical and social change toward gender equal world is making the transformation of sports.
     In this paper I would like to overview the historical process from vernacular gender structures in premodern societies to homogeneous trend (birth of “ecomomic sex” by Ivan Illich) through the development of modern industries. And I will point out that the modern sports born in England were established through the close ties between the specific European vernacular gender structure and the modern gender structure in industry society. In the same time I want to show the diversity of gender structures in the non-European traditional sports.
     As Norbert Elias pointed out, the modern sports developed with regulation of violence. On the other hand modern national armies were established through physical training and disciplines originated in modern sports. We can find the close relations among the modern sports and modern wars. The modern national armies brought about a kind of “male league” that united men tightly. Here I want to propose the concept “ homoerotic relation” among solders and/or male sport athletes that makes extraordinary strong male-ties including sharing death drives . This ties are not homo-sexual ones nor homo-social relations (by Eve Sedgiwick).
     Since 1970s we are facing world gender equal tides and the male-dominant societies fundamentally have changed. The changes of industrial structures and value systems have destroyed male-hegemony in the various fields. And now we are facing so-called “Masculinization of Deprivation”. These social changes are producing some social pathological phenomena in the sports scenes. These years we confronted with “ toxic masculinity ” in the sports world as the symbolic fields of male-dominant world.
     We have to re-examine the contemporary sports from the viewpoints of men & masculinities studies , to analyze the modern sports totally and to prospect the future of sports.
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  • Osamu TAKAMINE
    2019 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 17-27
    Published: September 30, 2019
    Released on J-STAGE: October 15, 2020
     This paper examines the commoditization of women in relation to sports from the perspective of men’s studies. To examine this issue, the “Sexy Rugby Rules” video, a poll on the nine most beautiful professional female baseball players, and women throwing first pitches at professional baseball games were used as examples, and the details were analyzed. In homosocial situations such as the World Cup and professional leagues, the presence of women is unfamiliar and unusual. The presence of women in such situations has been accepted, but in order to mitigate the feelings of discomfort, women are parodied. Furthermore, the representations of women in the three examples are premised on heterosexuality and depict the sexual desire of men for women as well as misogyny.
     Next, the relationship between three intentionalities (superiority, power and ownership) that depicts masculinity indicated by Ito and sexual desire was investigated. When these intentionalities are directed towards women, masculinitiy is expressed as sexual desire for the opposite sex. If the practice of sports serves as an opportunity to learn masculinity in modern society and if masculinity includes sexual desire for the opposite sex, modern men seek to realize, reconfirm, or achieve sexual desire for women through sports. One of the aspects of men seeking to achieve sexual desire for the opposite sex through sports is seen in the case where a female celebrity appearing in first pitch ceremonies was surrounded by junior high school baseball boys.
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  • Figure Skating, Race and the Gender Representations of Sexualities
    Kei OKADA
    2019 Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 29-48
    Published: September 30, 2019
    Released on J-STAGE: October 15, 2020
     In this paper, I examine the placement of masculinity in sports, which has been developed as a malecentred (male-gendered) culture, particularly considering the changes in the previous decade. Thus far, research on masculinity in sports has primarily focused on gender disparity and (male) homophobia. However, in the 2000s, after the acquisition of sexual minority rights in Western societies, particularly in Britain and the United States, the mainstreaming of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community has gradually promoted the acceptance of homosexual people in military and sports, which are considered the final strongholds of male homosociality.
     I further highlight the global rearrangement of gender images and the extent of masculinity in racial and sports contexts by providing examples of East Asian male figure skaters. Since the 2000s, these players have been prominent in figure skating, where having a feminine image is accepted.
     In addition, homosexuality is no longer considered a taboo for masculinity; by contrast, the strengthening of gender norms is considered a “gender-oriented” cultural value in English-speaking countries.
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