The 20th century has been made from, among others, three awkward materials: a) ever growing political monsters called nation states, b) the intertwining of a market economy, which was not quite free at all, and giant corporations, c) science & technology, which did not altogether mean science on the one hand and technology on the other in the lesser degree, but rather merchandisable technological R&D's leading science toward so-called consumer “needs” At the beginning of the 1990s, E. Hobsbawm paid attention to “sports” as one of the bridging agents for the incongruous cleft between the “public” and the “private” world within nation states. Around a century ago, T. Veblen already made a series of sharp diagnoses on the coming century; that it would have corporations nominally run by absentee ownership, but actually by a huge stratum of white collar populations whose identities could be found nowhere else except as the “leisure class”. Recently, US sociologist Stuart Ewen made clear that these diagnoses are truer than he had expected. The present paper re-examines these important precedents in the study of this century and argues that sociologists in sports, as well as those in any other fields, should not lose sight of the above mentioned three weird ingredients of the century. At the end of the 20th century, it proposes a question that, although the century seemed to enjoy various kinds of prosperous sports and related activities, was it reality or not entirely?
The rugby league, originally established by working class men in the late 19th century in northern England, was introduced to Australia in the early 20th century. The sport soon became one of the most popular cultural and leisure activities among working class men, particularly in New South Wales and Queensland. Since the end of World War Two, this football code has gradually been institutionalized as a nationalized and internationalized sport. Through the influence of television, the sport was re-organized and re-shaped as one of the most visible spectator sports in the nation, and became a commodity controlled by the mass media and leisure industry. The history of the rugby league in Australia may be a good example of how the English ideology was replaced by American materialism in 20th century sports.
In this paper my principal aim is to present a historical analysis of the role of Tokyo Higher Normal School in Japanese society. The alumni association “Meikeikai”—formed by graduates of Tokyo Higher Normal School, Tokyo University of Literature and Science and Tokyo University of Education—not only presented many talented persons to the Japanese educational world from prewar to postwar times but also played an important role in the popularization and development of sports in Japanese society. Yet, in another aspect, during the Tennousei-fascism age, it had a close relationship with national sports policy inspired by national ideology. In that case, it must be emphasized that the object of establishing the Tokyo Higher Normal School was to train the principals and teachers of Normal Schools, and in fact almost all graduates worked at the hub of those normal schools, the middle schools and educational administration. In this way, they played the role of so-called “non-commissioned officers” by spreading and inspiring national ideology. Certainly, graduates of Tokyo Higher Normal School did contribute to the development of Japanese sports, and yet they actually played a historical and social role to support and promote the national policies through sports (“driving national prestige”, “building up physical strength”, “giving proper guidance to public thought”-sisozendo and so on). The serious problem is that during the postwar democratization of sports, they did not even shoulder the “responsibility for war” or point it at themselves. On the contrary, they went with the new current of the times. The focus point is on this nature of theirs. Such a nature is predominant even in today's sports world, but we should note that not necessarily all possess this. The turning point depends on their social class. Namely, according to Masao MARUYAMA's theory, they belong to a “first group” of the middle class. So they usually waiver the choice to take the position of the people or dominant power, with their choice being dependent on their mode of forming the personal subject. Moreover, they are faced with not only internal “competition” but also “struggle” with many members out of “Meikeikai”, so they are constantly confronted with the choice made.
The word “tanoshimi” has frequently appeared in the media reports on sports, but this word makes us feel that something is wrong. This paper aims to analyze that strange feeling by describing how to use this word (Chapter I). In Chapter II, four types of meaning for “tanoshimi” are proposed for the discussion after this chapter. In Chapter III, interaction between the players and other people (including the media) is considered by adopting the concept of meta-message. In Chapter IV, severe criticism of players is considered by analyzing the typical comments and the interpretation on the causes of their defeat. In Chapter V, the paradoxical processes that cause the strange connotation of the words are discussed. Studies about use of the words in the remarks about sports should be continued (Chapter VI).
According to the result of questionnaires distributed to people (n=918) who came to the stadium to watch the Orix Blue Wave homegame on July 4 in 1998, more than 90% who suffered damage in the great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake answered that the victory of the Orix Blue Wave encouraged them in 1995 when the earthquake occurred. It can be expected that media played a vital role in forming that collective memory. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to investigate the narratives told and how these narratives are carried in the Kobe Shinbun newspaper from 1995-1996 from the viewpoint that media text is decoded actively by an audience, and to clarify by interview how an Orix fan (Mr. K) is affected by these stories with reference to his real life. The main results are as follows; 1) The motif found in the editorial columns is “affliction in disaster area”→“overlap of invincible Orix Blue Wave and recovery in disaster area”→“courage and vigor brought to disaster area by the victory”→“gratitude”→“hope of reconstruction”. 2) The articles telling of the Orix's victory are composed of comments made by fans and celebrities. It is inferred that the composition illustrates how the readers should react to the victory, and helps to instil a meaning to the victory. 3) However, it was clarified that Mr. K, who was an enthusiastic Orix fan and suffered damage by the earthquake, felt a gap between the narrative and his real life. 4) It is suggested that audiences exposed to media texts experience activity which is beyond a decoding of the text and supplement the meaning with reference to their own real lives, which denies and rejects the messages.
There are many studies on the women's history of physical education claiming that physical education has liberated women. But men and women are still taught separately in physical education. With focus on the body, studies assume that a physical difference between men and women exists. However, they hardly took women's bodies into account. This study therefore investigates body politics in women's physical education in the Meiji era, and reexamines women's history of physical education from a historical sociological perspective. For this purpose, I have referred to studies which mention the relation between sanitary and women's bodies. I have thus chosen “Women's Sanitary Association Magazine” published by a women's association. This magazine aims to enlighten the reader on sanitary knowledge. As a result, this spread of sanitary knowledge has encouraged the concept that women's bodies represent a healthy mother's body for bearing healthy children, even though healthy women's bodies conflict with traditional beauties. The state strongly promoted this concept and used physical education as a way of rendering a healthy mother's body. It is suggested that women's physical education impressed women's bodies with a gender role. Then women who lived during that era agreed with this view of their bodies and the role of physical education.
The purposes of this study were to compare the influence of commitment to children's sports in the community with that of the period when people lived in the community, and their commitment to children's sports proved more influential to community morale than the period's significance. A survey was conducted of 237 adults who took part in children's sport in the community, and inspected the difference in the influence between men and women. The data were analyzed with path analysis. As a result, the following points were clarified. 1) The most influential factor to improving community morale is participation in community activities, the second is friendship in the community. 2) The direct influence of commitment to children's sports on community morale is not confirmed, but indirect influence through community activities and friendship in the community is clarified. 3) The influence of the period when people lived in the community is neither directly nor indirectly confirmed. 4) The influence of commitment to children's sports is more influential among men than women. Future study should pay attention to understanding the relationship between improvement in community morale and quality of life.