Zeami explained typology of roles in Sando, in which Yawata (in Yumiyawata), Aioi (in Takasago), Yourou and Oimatsu were classified as an Old Deity. However, they are represented as a Young Deity in contemporary productions. Yokomichi Mario proposed a theory that Nochijite in Yumiyawata and Takasago might be an Old Deity in Zeami's era. But Yashima Seiji proposed a theory that Nochijite in Takasago might be a Young Deity in Zeami's era. This paper examines which is right through rereading Zeami's writings such as Shikado, Nikyoku Santai Ningyozu, Sando and remarks of Nochijite sings in Takasago. This paper suggests the possibility that Nochijite in all Zeami's Waki Noh was the Old Deity in Zeami's era. And Takasago was a first play in which Nochijite changed from the Old Deity to the Young long afterwards.
Zeami used the term of “Asibumi” in his writings. This paper aims to make clear what Asibumi meant in Noh performance.
An interpretation of Asibumi is suggested in Karonshu Nohgakuronshu published in 1961. It is said that Asibumi was not a technique to beat a time with a foot, but it was an action for the purpose of walking. This understanding was led by using Japanese-Portuguese dictionary and writings of Zenchiku who was Zeami's son-in-law. However, this paper would discuss following points by examining the writings of Zeami. First, Asibumi is a movement to step in accordance with the rhythm of songs and drums. Then, it seems that Asibumi is not an action of walking during Noh performance. That is to say, it is the actions of foot that represent effective sound and movement on the stage.
The play Tsubosaka Reigenki is the story of married couple, a blind man named Sawaichi and his beautiful wife Osato. It was originally written for Bunraku and first performed in Osaka in 1887. The following year it was staged as Kabuki in Kyoto.
While the plot of the current Kabuki version of Tsubosaka Reigenki is the same as that of Bunraku, when the story was adapted for Kabuki for the first time in 1888, a character named Gankuro, who courts Osato was added. In this version, a style called Hayagawari is often performed. In this style, one actor plays both Sawaichi and Gankuro, changing roles quickly. This version was very popular with the public.
However, from the end of 1890's, Kabuki critics began to criticize Hayagawari as being “only clumsy conjuring tricks.” They were of the opinion that Kabuki Tsubosaka Reigenki should be “a serious drama” and that Hayagawari was no longer necessary. As a result, from this time Gankuro gradually disappeared from the stage of the Kabuki theatre.
This essay discusses the performances of Hamlet by the Japanese director, NINAGAWA Yukio. Ninagawa has directed this tragedy six times, and among his Shakespearean productions, Hamlet is his most frequent. Each production was a turning point in his history as a director. Now he is 73 years old, and through his own experiences he has changed the theme and direction on Hamlet. However, his direction in 2003 was most significant.
At first this essay will briefly review the history of Ninagawa's five Hamlets and reexamine each performance. Then the 2003 Hamlet, which is the newest direction and most controversial performance among Ninagawa's Hamlet, will be investigated associating the direction with the text and the criticisms. From the view point of thanatology, this essay will discuss the depictions of Hamlet and Fortinbras. Thirdly, Ninagawa's consideration about his own age and senescence will be presented and its association with his direction will be pointed out. Finally, this essay will make clear his present state in his own career as a director.
This paper tries to analyze Johann Jakob Engel's (1741-1802) theory of acting and his position in the process of the modernization of drama and theatre.
In the late 18th century, a notion of ‘natural’ acting based on realities in prose dramas was gradually getting people's recognition in place of the neoclassical idea of acting relying on French verse dramas. In his book Ideen zu einer Mimik (1785-86), he sought to establish his theory of acting by examining the fundamental problems on the nature of drama itself.
Therefore he applied to it the physiognomical method, which was in fashion of the age. He sought to prove that one's inner emotional states could be reflected in his external expressions. The crucial point of his theory, however, was on Lessing's ideas of the theatre as an art form of time-space structure.
Thus, by reconciling the physiognomical method with Lessing's ideas, he claimed the continuity of acting, which should be created through gradual changes in intermediate gestures revealing inner emotional states.
In 1907 (Meiji 40), the Chunliushe Art group performed Lady of the Camellia and Uncle Tom's Cabin in cooperation with a Shinpa actor, FUJISAWA Asajiro. The Chunliushe was organized in Tokyo by LI Shutong and CENG Xiaogu, Chinese students who were studying at the Tokyo Fine Arts School (currently named Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music). In China, the year 1907 is said to be the origin of the Chinese Huaju. In this report the following are reviewed based on the materials at that period on this production.
Lady of the Camellia, the first play performed by the Chunliushe. The background of an anecdote on the actors who performed in Lady of the Camellia of MATSUI Shoo, a play writer. The actors of ‘Lady of the Camellia’ seen by MATSUI.
The career of LU Jingruo, a director of the Chunliushe in the later period. LU Jingruo was dead at the tender age of 30, who joined the Chunliushe after his secret visit to Japan. He absorbed a new style of acting during the era of ‘the Germination period’ of the Japanese Shingeki.
FUJISAWA Asajiro's impact on Chinese Huaju. FUJISAWA Asajiro supported the Chunliushe, and also had a deep interest in Chinese students. He established the Tokyo Actors School and fostered actors in this new era.
This research report is based on my stay and experience at Beijing Film Academy, an educational institution that focuses on acting. The academy uses methods from the Soviet Union and portrays the reality of the education of Chinese acting. As I participated in a year of term of training course and kept track of that, I have realized that the methods used in acting are deeply connected with people's daily lives. The aim of my research is to introduce the unseen factors of Chinese education for acting (in Japan) and for the readers to understand its possibilities.