This paper aims at understanding welfare in the socialist order comprehensively and systematically. With three analytical concepts, i.e., social policy, economic policy, and societal policy which consists of the former two, welfare was examined as a kind of socio-economic system, a "welfare system". In the socialist order, societal policy had the grand purpose of creating a new society to realize "the well-being of the people". However, due to coincidence of financial crisis and increase in the necessity of social policy, the conflict between social policy and economic policy increased. As a result, societal policy became difficult to pursue its purpose, so that the purpose was reduced to a limited area of social policy and lost its priority. This meant the collapse of the welfare system. "The well-being of the people" in the socialist order was undoubtedly the ideology and the purpose to be achieved in the initial stage, but its realization failed halfway.
This study aims to: 1. exemplify the effect of group home care for older adults with dementia and 2. clarify the factors contributing to the effect. The present study is based upon a case study of 5 residents of a group home for older adults with dementia. As the case study proved the effect of group home care for older adults with dementia, the result was analyzed with 5 frameworks; ADL and IADL, roles in a group, emotion, communication, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia: BPSD. For the result, the factors of the effect of group home care are summarized as follows; respect for individuality-individualized approach and protection of privacy-, environment-physical, psychological and social environment-, effectiveness of a group-grouping and group dynamics-, continuity of life-normal life and life as the past-, and a group home as pioneers of dementia care.
Objective: The objective of this study was to examine how specialists should provide support for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients in the process of their decision-making regarding the use of mechanical ventilation. A case analysis was made focused on the changes in a patient's perception through the process of her interaction with her family members and specialists. Methods: The author visited the patient's home regularly, and conducted interviews with the patient, her family and the specialists involved. Results: There were perceptual differences regarding the use of mechanical ventilation among the patient, her family and specialists. These differences arose because of the differences in the patient's perspective, which focused on the present, and that of the specialists, which focused on future developments. Problems resulting from information gaps were resolved by ongoing professional involvement including the provision of information, while problems arising from different values were difficult to deal with. Conclusion: Specialists should be aware of these differences when offering support. Besides providing accurate information, they should facilitate interaction between the patients and family members, thus helping them to reach a consensus.
This study looks at students attending a free school in the Chikuho District of Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. The paper examines the situation of Yogo-type school refusal which results from economical disadvantage and suggests strategies to support these children. In this district, the ratio of Seikatsu-hogo benefit recipients exceeds the national average by ten times, and more than 50% of the children going to the free school live in households on welfare. Moreover, approximately 70% of these children are at such low academic attainment levels that they face numerous obstacles even if returned to mainstream school. In addition, many of them live in single-parent families (39%), and in families with mentally or intellectually handicapped parents (22%). The study finds that the educational deprivation is considered to be the main problem for these children from disadvantaged families, and suggests a framework for setting up comprehensive compensatory education systems. The methods of collaboration with parents are also discussed.
Although it is often "warned" that since a child is powerless and easily hurt, and that, if abused, he/she is likely to grow up to be a criminal or an abusive parent, recent studies in North America have resulted in rejecting this kind of causality. In Japan, however, the thinking is still strongly maintained that assistance to the children should be like one for vulnerable. While a change in the paradigm of aid philosophy from one based on paternalism to that of empowerment is taking place, it seems to this writer that empowerment of the children is ignored. This paper reexamines the traditional view of the child in the child welfare field, and a pathological model in the field of child abuse intervention from the viewpoint of "resilience", while it introduces an assistance program to abused children, quoting the Child Abuse Prevention program that has come to be known as a model program to empower the children.
Current measures for the care of children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities that emphasize home-based support had previously not been implemented prior to the period of high economic growth in Japan. At that time, particularly when policies for the expansion of facilities ware being promoted, the energetic movements by parents of children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities greatly contributed to the expansion of facilities that provide care for these children. Although grass-roots movements by these parents can be seen starting in the 1960s, their parental affection and responsibility were emphasized in order to appeal for the need for these facilities during actual lobbying. These movements began to be successful in implementing dramatic policies starting in 1965 as a result of the expansion of such facilities being positioned as a part of social development. The fact that these policies were naturally considered to be a family function defined the stance and attitudes adopted by parents. Finally, on the basis of these considerations, this paper points that the limiting nature of the policies at that time is attributable to the fact they relied heavily on parental responsibility.
This present study aimed to clarify the factors related to "Cognitive Caregiving Appraisal" by family caregivers. "Cognitive Caregiving Appraisal" is a scale composed of positive and negative segments. The research design was a cross-sectional survey; the mailed survey was conducted to 440 caregivers, and 243 caregivers were analyzed. In order to achieve the study objectives, multiple regression analyses were performed. The dependent variables are as follows. The independent variables are the number of problematic behaviors, and ADL as factors of the frail elderly, and caregiver's gender, caregiver's age, relationship between caregvers and the frail elderly, perceived health status of caregivers, caregiver's work, performing caregiving activities during the night, caregiving years, satisfaction with informal support as factors of caregivers. The results indicated that: (1) 'feelings of restriction of social life' was significantly associated with caregiver's work; (2) 'anxiety about continuing caregiving' was significantly associated with perceived health status of caregiver; (3) 'distress of the relationships with others' was significantly associated with satisfaction with informal support; (4) 'fulfillment of caregiving roles' was significantly associated with performing caregiving activities during night; (5) and 'affection toward the caretakers' was significantly associated with the caregiver's age. Additionally, there exists no significant factor with 'self-growth by caregiving'. We can observe differences between the two appraisal segments in terms of related factors. The findings implied that care providers and care managers should carefully assess and support caregivers, and they should promote to decrease the caregiver's negative appraisals and help the caregivers take caregiving positively.
This research aims at the protection of human rights of the children born by Artificial Insemination by Donor. This research studied the development of legislation in Western countries regarding children's right to know about their parents, that is to say, their right to know their birth origin. Moreover it conducted interviews with children born by Artificial Insemination by Donor both in the U.S. and Japan and obtained the following statement which can be termed "Loss of the Narrative". 1. This was carried out without my informed consent and without my permission. 2. I want to be convinced that I was born not from just sperm and mother but from father and mother. Also I wish I had a chance to meet my genetic father. The outcomes of this research concludes that a system to guarantee the AID children's right to know their birth origin is required in order to reconstruct their lost narrative, clarification of the structure of challenges surrounding AID children, and clarification that the essence of those challenges can be deemed as "Social Abuse".
The purpose of this study is to understand mothers' bereavement process following the death of a child from childhood cancer and the significance of their participation in self-help groups/support groups(abbreviating to SHG/SG hereafter). It is based on the life story told by 15 mothers who lost a child from childhood cancer and have experienced the opportunity to participate in SHG/SG. The data were analyzed using the holistic-form-analysis-method and the categorical-content-analysis-method. Six categories were discovered before participating in the group. They were 'steeped in a feeling of freedom', 'shocked', 'falling through the floor', 'not facing up to the reality', 'drifted apart', and 'changing of the family relations'. And two categories were discovered about how mothers take a step forward to group participation. They were 'silent grief' and 'taking a step forward to group participation'. And five categories were discovered in mothers' experience in the exchange meeting or support group. They were 'facing up to the reality', 'removing the fixed idea', 'finding out the power to live', 'recognizing self change' and 'deepened grief'. Three categories were discovered in the mothers' life after participating in the group. They were 'maintaining the balance of mind and body', 'keeping bond with the child', and 'reorganizing the feeling'.
This paper focuses on 'Paternalism' which has been negatively interpreted in social welfare context. I classified the criteria for justification of paternalism into five categories through a review of previous studies and theories. The most remarkable criterion was 'Autonomy-Respecting Paternalism' which has been discussed in the aspect of autonomy for recipients of paternalistic interventions. According to this criterion, interferers can avoid oppressive interventions and develop the autonomy of the interfered recipients. Therefore, it can be adapted to social welfare paradigm. Although the justified paternalistic interventions have been discussed in many studies, the meanings of paternalism are not fully understood in our society. The negative aspects of paternalism can be summarized as three meanings. Moreover I revealed the difference between the necessity and the criticism for paternalism. However 'Autonomy-Respecting Paternalism' cannot be justified, because the theory of autonomy has diverse meanings and value judgments. In conclusion, the criterion of 'Autonomy-Respecting Paternalism' is likely to be abused oppressively by interferers under the name of autonomy-respecting.
The objective of this study is to clarify the factors influencing the competitive employment of persons with intellectual disabilities based on the theory of "competence," the ability which effectively allows one to influence the environment. The analysis reveals the following findings: (1) the development of working competence brings out "the development of the will and ability to work," "the development of positive and objective self-recognition," "the development of socialization," and "the promotion of the will to live independently"; (2) the factors obstructing competence development are three-fold as follows: "the supporter-centered support," "the supporters' negative attitude regarding the competitive employment of persons with intellectual disabilities," and "the lack of both supportive system and supportive environment for the supporters." In conclusion, two findings are clarified in this study. First, if persons with intellectual disabilities receive appropriate responses, they will be highly likely to succeed in participating in the competitive workplaces and retaining their jobs. However, secondly, if they receive inappropriate responses, they will be highly likely to fail getting competitive employment and suffer from poor job retention.
This research sought to examine the structure of "perceptions of the caregiving role" among mothers caring for children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities and clarify the impact of these "perceptions of the caregiving role" on the well-being of the mother. Subjects were 154 mothers receiving a questionnaire for mothers of children with severe motor and intellectual disabilities residing in the suburbs of Tokyo. Results of analysis indicated the following. Five factors were identified with regard to the structure of "perceptions of the caregiving role": "being solely responsible for the role," "primacy of the caregiving role," "maximization of role involvement," "recognition of personal gain," and "role captivity." Of these, those factors having a significant impact on the well-being of the mother were "being solely responsible for the role," "recognition of personal gain," and "role captivity." Among these impacting factors, "role captivity," i.e. being constrained by perceptions as part of norms regarding fulfillment of the caregiving role, had the greatest impact on well-being and resulted in indirectly diminishing well-being through the reduction of social support overall and amplification of secondary stressors.
This study aims at clarifying the facilitating factors and the interfering factors of the person centered support by care staff at the group home for persons with intellectual disabilities in order to obtain the basic data on the quality of support for residents. The research method employed is recording of group discussions at the training workshop for care staff. The data obtained were analyzed by the modified grounded theory approach. The interfering factors found were (1) 'generation of the image of resident and its fixation' (2) 'generation of the image of group home and its fixation' (3) 'my own logic of Ie' based on the individual value of care staff (4) 'support activities not oriented to the person centered support' which are likely to be caused by the fact that support activities at a group home are usually conducted by a single care staff member, and also that the residents have intellectual disabilities. (5) 'sense of achievement, complacency and pretension as a single worker at a group home' are born of the above circumstances and they further reinforce 'support activities not oriented to the person centered approach'. The facilitating factor found was (6) 'awareness of one's own support' which is obtained through gaining opportunities for reflecting on his/her support activities and their influence on the residents. It is expected that the support oriented to the person centered approach would be developed through this factor.
Since around 2000, we have had some cases of School Social Work (SSW) in Japan. However, we have not discussed why we need SSW. This paper investigated the origin of SSW and the relationship between Social Work, Counseling and School by reviewing the history of SSW after the World War II, and made it clear that "School" and "Social Work" in 1990's were related each other only by administrative procedure. Based on this analysis, we suggest that we should develop SSW as "Collaborative relations" from now on.
The purpose of this study is to analyze how the Pension System, Child Allowance, Child Support Allowance, and Public Assistance System are set to alleviate the income security of women. The study examines the inter-system analysis as well as the coverage of these four systems, focusing on "positioning of women" and "the meaning of income security." The results of this study are as follows: First, the women covered in the income security system are in fact individuals who slipped out of the patriarchal model. That is, even if they are separated from the patriarchal model, these women are still carrying out the role of wife or mother based on the sex role model. Second, the four systems, the range of recipients, the system purpose, the reason for security, the benefit level each had its own peculiar structure and coverage, and the continuity between systems could not be found. Consequently, this shows the defect of income security and the exclusion of particular types of women from the income security system.
The purpose of this study is to consider the discussion about the foundation of correctional-education in the magazine "KANGOKU ZASSHI'(1889.11-99.6). Correctional-education is considered one of the original forms of children's welfare in Japan and connects to the practice of the present "Child Independence Support Facilities". The necessity of such care and welfare support to juvenile delinquents and youth-offenders began with the discussion in the Meiji era about correctional-education. The direction of the discussion was toward separating children from the inferior environment in the prisons, and to care and provide educational and welfare support. However, as the legislation for correctional-education was promoted primarily by those concerned with prisons, the focus weighted heavily on security rather than the original intention of child protection and welfare.