The present study examined relationships between the levels of leisure-time, household, and occupational physical activity (PA) with psychological status and social networks in older Japanese adults. Of 2,100 adults aged 65 to 85 years randomly drawn from the resident register in Kasama City, 349 completed a required questionnaire. We assessed their PA using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly. A partial correlation analysis and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were performed to evaluate relationships between participants’ three types of PA and scores of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and Lubben Social Network Scale (LSNS). We adjusted for age, educational level, and annual equivalent income. In men, higher leisure-time PA associated with favorable scores of several factors in the GDS (r = -.27~-.30) and LSNS (r = .17~.27). In women, higher leisure-time PA associated with favorable scores of GDS energy loss scores (r = -.15) and LSNS friends networks (r = .21). Older men with higher household PA displayed favorable scores of the GDS energy loss (r = -.19) and several factors in the LSNS (r = .18~.25). Older women with higher household PA displayed favorable scores of several factors in the GDS (r = -.18~-.25) and LSNS (r = .21~.22). The ANCOVA indicated that the level of leisure-time PA was lower in women living with both husband and relatives than in those living with relatives and no husband. The level of household PA was lower in men living with both wife and relatives than for men living with relatives and no wife. Psychological energy may be necessary to increase leisure-time PA and household PA in both older men and women. Leisure-time and household PA were more related to social networks in men than women.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between ground reaction force parameters in sit-to-stand at the baseline or the amounts of change (Δ) over one-year follow-up period and incidence of “one or more falls” or “mobility limitations” during the follow-up period, in community-dwelling older adults. We performed analyses on 76 community-dwelling older adults, which included 29 men and 47 women, aged 65-84 years (73.5 ± 5.6 years) at baseline. Five parameters were measured: peak reaction force per body weight (F/w), which reflected the maximal downward push to rise the body upwards, two maximal rate of force development per body weight (RFD1/w, RFD9/w), which were an index of the capacity for rapid muscle force production, and two time-related parameters (T1, T2), which evaluated quickness of movement. Significant differences were found in ΔF/w (0.00 vs. 0.04 kgf • kg-1), ΔRFD1/ w (- 1.02 vs. 0.34 kgf/s • kg-1) and ΔRFD9/w (- 0.47 vs. 0.17 kgf/s • kg-1) between fallers and non-fallers, but no difference was found in any parameters at baseline. The subjects who reported incident mobility limitations performed lower in RFD9/w (8.26 vs. 10.42 kgf/s • kg-1), longer in T1 (453 vs. 301 ms) and T2 (1081 vs. 811 ms) at the baseline than the subjects who maintained good mobility. These results suggest that RFD9/w declines with incidence of falls, and may be able to predict onset of mobility limitations.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the whole body reaction time as the motor ability measurements items for preschool children. The 221 boys and 210 girls of preschool children and 57 males performed five trials of the whole body reaction time. The preschool children were sorted 12 groups by age in every six months and sex. We calculated the relative value at median value of each subject. Each mean value of the minimum and maximum value from five trails of the male subjects were 0.308(92.7%) and 0.365(109.9%) seconds. In addition, every mean value for preschool children groups, the minimum value, the second value, the median value, the fourth value and the maximum value from five trials were 0.431-0.655(77.8-86.9%), 0.476-0.717(90.1-94.7%), 0.506-0.779(100%), 0.554-0.837(106.9-112.6%) and 0.622-0.943(118.1-132.3%) seconds. The mean value of the second and fourth relative values for preschool children groups were equivalent to the mean value of the minimum and maximum relative value for male subjects. The intra-class correlation coefficient of inter-trails (three data was excepted maximum and minimum value) for preschool children groups ranged of between 0.404 and 0.805. This mean value of preschool children correlated negatively with postnatal days (boys; r=-0.483 p<0.001. girls; r=-0.651 p<0.001). These results suggested the mean value of three data which was excepted maximum and minimum value in five trials was reliable as the motor ability measurements items for preschool children.
Sports in which teams have the same number of home and away games provide balanced paired comparison data; thus, whether home-field offers an advantage can be determined by a usual statistical test comparing home and away games. However, an unequal number of home and away games results in unbalanced paired comparison data, and a simple analysis cannot be used because it does not account for the influence of team strength. This study statistically defined the home-field advantage of Japanese soccer leagues including J. league Division 1 (J1) and Division 2 (J2), and Japan Women’s Football League Division 1 (L1) and Division 2 (L2) with an unequal number of home and away games using two linear models of multiple regression analysis and logistic regression analysis with a design matrix containing 1, 0, and -1. Data are based on 306 games in the J1 league, 459 games in the J2 league, 84 games in L1 league and 168 games in L2 league. “Differences between winning and losing scores” and “wins and losses” were used as two dependent variables. Data are cited from the official web site of the J-league and Japan Women’s Football league. Model fitting was determined with a coefficient of determination and maximum likelihood ratio, overall home advantage was determined with analysis of variance and analysis of deviation , and individual home advantage was determined with multiple comparison methods. Results are as follows: 1) As all leagues had significant coefficients of determination and maximum likelihood ratios, applying a linear model to home advantage and team strength was considered to be valid from the standpoint of model fitting. 2) Partial regression coefficients in two linear models showing team strength had significant value and a significant ordinal correlation coefficient with final results in the league. This fact showed that partial regression coefficients were discernible and reflected team strength. In addition, partial regression coefficients on home-field advantage computed at the same time were also considered valid. 3) Results of analysis of variance and analysis of deviation and multiple comparison method showed that the two J-leagues experienced significant home-field advantage, but Japan Women’s Football league did not. This difference was considered to be caused by the difference in audience size between the J-leagues and Japan Women’s Football league.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to propose the assessment of fall risk profile using Demura’s fall risk assessment chart (Demura et al., 2010), and to determine the characteristics in fall risk among the Japanese healthy community-dwelling elderly population. Methods: Subjects were 1122 healthy community-dwelling elderly aged 60 years and over (380 males, 70.5 +/- 7.0 yr and 742 females, 70.4 +/- 7.2 yr). The percentage who had experience a fall was 15.8%. We calculated the incidence of fall for each score of fall risk factor, and assessed fall risk profile. Then, fall risk characteristics in the community-dwelling elderly were examined by using incidence of fall for each risk factor. Results: The incidence of fall among the elderly with perfect score of each fall risk factor were potential for fall (81%), physical function (75%), disease and physical symptom (100%), environment (50%), behavior and character (43%), respectively. Among the high fall risk elderly group, the percentage who had only one high fall risk factor was 25%, but that who had two or more high fall risk was 60%. Furthermore, among the low fall risk elderly group, 35% of them had an either one high fall risk factor, and about 20% of them had two or more high fall risk factors. Conclusion: These findings will provide the useful information for the further social fall risk preventive measures.
Accelerometers are recognized as a valid and objective tool for assessing free-living physical activity and have been used extensively to monitor activity patterns in field settings. When processing accelerometer data, several issues should be considered, such as identifying daily wear time. This study examined the differences in the number of valid data gathered with different decision rules. The participants were 213 overweight adults who were recruited for a weight-loss intervention study. For a baseline assessment of physical activity, they wore a triaxial accelerometer HJA-350IT for 14 consecutive days. A valid day was defined as having 10 h of wear time. Wear time was estimated by subtracting non-wear time from 24 h. The accelerometer collected acceleration signals over a 10-s time interval. First, non-wear time was defined as the time during which there was no acceleration signal. The number of participants who had valid records for more than 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day was 204. Next, non-wear time was defined as the time during which there was no acceleration signal continuously for 20 min or more. In this case, the number of participants who had valid records under the same condition was 210. These findings suggest that the choice of wear time makes a difference in the number of valid data.