The purpose of this study was to create an achievement evaluation standard for men’s discus throwing. Subjects were 96 male discus thrower. The six trials of the discus throwing movement were recorded by camera, and the best record was used for analysis. Delphi method with 8 experts was implemented for characteristic causal analysis. Item characteristic and test characteristic were analyzed by IRT of 2PLM. Binary data (success=1, failure=0) was collected following the achievement decision criterion. The discus throwing was classified in the main of 4 motor phase (preparation, first turn, second turn, release).The discus throwing movement was configured 11 sub-movements and 34 items. A difficulty gap between the first turn and the release turn was large, there was a lot of items than other phases. Therefore, it is guessed that the first turn phase and the release phase are main phase and important for discus throwing. Unidimensionality, fitness to 2PLM and invariance of parameters were confirmed. The test reliability coefficient displayed a maximum value of 0.97 at an ability of -0.1. Ability range with the reliability coefficient of over 0.8 was between -0.2 to 2.0. It is means that the achievement evaluation standard of the discus throwing movement skill was high test precision. The correlation of the ability and the throwing record was 0.93 (p <0.05). The validity of this achievement evaluation standard was confirmed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of one-day recall measurements of the number of floors of stairs climbed per day (Purpose I) and the effects of increasing daily stair use on knee extensor muscle thickness and strength in young adult females (Purpose II). Purpose I: Twenty-nine young adults (12 males, 17 females) participated in this study. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the recall measurements of the number of floors of stairs climbed per day and the stair ascent, descent and total (ascent + descent) daily step counts measured using an accelerometer with a barometer were ρ=0.59, ρ=0.51 and ρ=0.58, respectively. Purpose II: Nine young adult females without exercise habits (20.8 ± 1.2 yrs) participated in a three-month intervention study. The subjects recorded their one-day recall measurements of the number of floors of stairs climbed in a log and were given a goal of increasing this number by 10 floors per day over baseline during the intervention period. During the intervention, the subjects increased the number of floors climbed per day (9.9 ± 3.5 floors) over the baseline value (1.6 ± 1.5 floors). According to the data obtained from an accelerometer with a barometer, the subjects exhibited no stair use lasting > 1 minute per event during the intervention. After the intervention, a significant increase was observed in the right leg regarding the knee extensor muscle thickness and strength. One-day recall measurements of the number of floors of stairs climbed per day are a valid parameter for assessing the daily amount of stair use. This study also suggested that increasing the daily amount of stair use, by accumulating very short bouts of stair use, may therefore increase both the knee extensor muscle thickness and strength in young adult females.
An advance practice before actual trails may affect handgrip strength exertion values in gradually increased demand values. This study aimed to examine effects of an adjustment practice of grip exertion with subjective intensity with 50% of the maximum grip strength on handgrip values in gradually increased demand values and its laterality. Subjects were 20 healthy males (age: 21.2 ± 1.7). The demand values were 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the maximum grip. In three pre-practice, each value was immediately fed back to each subject. A relative error(%) between demanded and actual exertion values was used as an evaluation variable. In a result of two-factor variance analysis ( demand values x dominant hand/non-dominant hands), a significant interaction (p<0.05) was found. Multiple comparisons showed that a significant difference was found only in the non-dominant hand and the 20% demand value had a larger error than the other demand values (40%, 60%, and 80%). In addition, it was significantly larger in the non-dominant hand than in the dominant hand. In conclusion, when performing an advance with 50% subjective intensity of the maximum grip, an error in the 20% demand value is larger than that in the other demand values in the non-dominant hand and in the dominant hand.
This study examines the experimental procedure and age differences in preschool children's choice reaction time in the game of rock-paper-scissors. Subjects included 80 healthy preschool children (aged 4 years: n = 14, 5 years: n = 48, 6 years: n = 18). To measure their choice reaction time, we made a measuring device utilizing the game of rock-paper-scissors, and measured their response time of selecting and pressing the correct answer button by the dominant hand in each condition (“draw" or “win"). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between trials was over 0.65. The two-way ANOVA indicated that the response time of all four, five, and six-year-old children was much faster, when “draw" rather than when “win" was selected. In addition, results showed that when “win" was selected, the response time of six-year-old children was substantially faster than that of four-year-old children. The reliability of the testing method developed in this study was sufficient; it was clarified that the performance of win condition improved with age.
In this study, subjects were 90 ball-game players (basketball, rugby, and soccer). The 505 test was conducted to evaluate their agility. The aim of this study was to clarify what the test specifically evaluated, and investigate methods to utilize this test effectively. The time measured to run a course divided into 10 sections, the results of image analysis of running motions, and evaluation of the players by their coach were used as the study methods. Reproducibility was verified in the time to complete the 505 test. A significant correlation was noted in the time for the 505 test and each time for the deceleration, turning, and deceleration sections (P<0.01). In the 505 test, subjects gradually lowered their center of gravity and reduced their running speed in the deceleration section before turning, and, in the acceleration section after turning, they showed a tendency to accelerate by gradually raising their center of gravity. In the basketball and rugby groups, a significant correlation was noted between the time of the 505 test and evaluation by their coach (P<0.01); however, in the soccer group, no correlation was noted. From the above, the 505 test used in this study is considered to be appropriate to evaluate the turning ability and adjustability of the running speed before and after turning in basketball and rugby players.
This study clarified the influences of wearing Japanese-style sandals on standing postural sway and posture in preschool children. The participants were 159 healthy children, aged between 4 and 5 years (sandal group: 106; control group: 53). Both groups were participating in indoor barefoot education. The experimental group wore sandals as indoor shoes for five months. The control group continued barefoot education for the same period. In both the groups, the soles' ground contact area and track length of center of pressure (T-COP) were measured before and after five months with a plantar pressure measurement device. Additionally, for the sandal group, their natural standing posture was photographed. Two-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) revealed the mean differences between the groups as well as the before–after ground contact area and T-COP. In the sandal group, the ground contact area became smaller due to the foot's arch formation. As for T-COP, the sandal group (p < 0.05) showed significant change, becoming smaller, but the control group did not. When the sandal groups' standing posture was observed post-measurement, these results suggested posture improvement in the straightening of the back. Consequently, Japanese-style sandals greatly influence standing postural sway and natural standing posture.
This study aimed to examine age difference of walking time within a frame and on the balance beam with and without obstacle in preschool girls. The study examined 162 preschool girls ages 4–6. The subjects walked to and fro twice on the course and the balance beam under three conditions: no, low, and high obstacles. Three-way ANOVA was used to ascertain the mean differences of each test, age, and obstacle condition for each walking time. A significant interaction was found between test–age factors and test–obstacle factors. Multiple comparisons showed that walking times were shorter on the course than on the balance beam for all age groups and obstacle conditions. Walking times for the course and balance beam tasks were shorter for 5- and 6-year-old girls than 4-year-old girls. Walking times on the balance beam with no obstacle (shortest) and a low obstacle were shorter than that with a high obstacle (longest). Walking times on the course were also shorter for 6-year-old girls than for 4.5-year-old girls. Walking times on the balance beam were shorter for the 6-year-old girls than the 5-year-olds, shorter for the 5-year- olds than the 4.5- and 5-year-olds, and shorter for the 4.5- and 5-year-olds than 4- to 4.5-year-olds. In conclusion, in-course walking is faster than balance beam walking regardless of age or the presence of an obstacle in girls. Furthermore, improvements in the ability to complete both of these walking tasks may differ with age in girls.
Since early evaluation of mild cognitive decline in older adults is very important in the clinical settings of prevention for dementia, development of a convenient screening test for cognitive function is indispensable. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and reliability of a novel test for evaluating cognitive function “trail making peg test (TMPT)". This study was conducted in three issues: 1) associations of the TMPT, the trail making test (TMT) and the pegboard test with cognitive functions, 2) age and gender difference in the associations between the TMPT and cognitive functions, 3) reliability of the TMPT. Subjects were community-dwelling older adults including both men and women, and numbers of subjects in each issue were 88, 540 and 23, respectively. Our data indicated that 1) the correlation coefficient of cognitive function was higher with the TMPT (r = -0.682, p < 0.001) than with the TMT (r= -0.563, p < 0.001) and the pegboard test (r = -0.524, p < 0.001), 2) the correlations of the TMPT were significant independent of age and gender, and 3) the TMPT displayed a higher reliability (ICC = 0.78). These results suggest that the TMPT can be a convenient and useful tool for assessing cognitive function in older adults.