The organic solvents such as trichloroethane and trichloroethylene have been conventionally used as the materials to reduce the volume of styrene-foam. Limonene made from citrus fruit is now widely used as an effective one for the volumetric reduction of styrene-foam. Limonene is soluble in ethanol and 1-propanol. For the design and operation of the separation process, the vapor-liquid equilibria are required for the solutions concerned. ln the present study, vapor-liquid equilibria for the ethanol + limonene and 1-propanol + limonene were measured at atmospheric pressure. The results obtained were correlated by the Wilson equation.
We report the thermaI characterization of thin films by using a photoacoustic (PA) technique. We measured the annealing behavior of the thermal conductivity of Si ion-implanted silicon and the photoacoustic images of the defects in P ion-implanted silicon. It is clarified that the thermal conductivities strongly depended on the defects in the ion implanted layer. In PA images of P ion-implanted silicon, the primary defect which was generated by the ion implantation disappeared after annealing at 650°C. The secondary defects was generated in the same place as the primary defects after annealing at 700°C. The PA method, therefore, is a usefuI measurement method for the evaluation of crystallinity and defects of semiconductor thin films.