It was published that titanium dioxide (TiO2) anti-reflection coatings with 25 nm of thickness were effective for high visible transmittance of solar energy control window consisting of thermochromic vanadium dioxide (VO2) film. It is also known that photo-catalytic TiO2 film should have the thickness of several hundreds nanometers. Increasing of the thickness of the anti-reflection coating enough for photo-catalytic properties the solar energy control window would also be a photo-catalytic window. In this report, we determined the optical constants of VO2 film by spectro-ellipsometory and calculated the spectral transmittance of solar energy control window with various thickness of TiO2 layer by thin film optics. In the results, solar energy control window with around 1 micrometer thickness of TiO2 layer shows high visible transmittance and high controllability of solar transmittance, simultaneously.
The electrical resistivity was studied for liquid semiconductor-metal systems with multi-eutectic points, Cd-Sb, Sb-Zn and Bi-Te and ideal eutectic system with no mutual solubility in solid phases, Bi-Cd. Similarly to previous results of compound forming eutectic systems(Ga-Sb etc.) and deep eutectic systems(Au-Si, etc.), anomalous behaviors of the temperature coefficient, dρ/dT, were found at almost all the eutectic compositions also for systems studied here. The electrical conduction was discussed for inhomogeneous systems containing concentration fluctuations in the homogeneous liquid phase. The concentration fluctuation amounts to be a few volume % for Bi-Te system. The large concentration fluctuation, which may be derived from the microscopic precipitation of solid phases, grows near the eutectic composition even in the homogeneous liquids.