The thermal properties of a plasma is strongly dependent on ions and electrons which are included in a plasma. So the properties cannot be estimated from those of an ordinary gas. In this paper. the composition. the thermodynamic properties and the transpart properties of a plasma are described.
Reliable thermophysical properties on biological tissue are necessary for evaluating the heat transfer process in tissue because of the recent progress of medical technology involving the thermal process. This motivated many researches for developing the thermal models in tissue and measurement technique of thermophysical properties on tissue, This article reviews a recent progress on this area.
Hot dry rock technology and hydro-geothermal development require a thorough knowledge of the variation of the thermal properties of rocks up to depth of the order of five kilometers. Estimation technique of in situ effective thermal conductivities of the rocks and two laboratory systems developed to measure the thermal conductivity of the rock matrix rapidly at simulated geothermal conditions for estimating them are described. One of the systems is for core samples and another for cuttings samples from geothermal wells. Absolute errors less than ±1.5% and ±15.0% for the former and the latter, respectively, were verified by using highly pure fused quartz as the standard sample.
A laser flash method for measuring thermal diffusivity in the direction parallel or perpendicular to the sample surface of films has been developed. On measurement of parallel direction of a sample, a pulsed laser beam which has narrow line-shaped cross section is flashed onto the front surface of the sample. The temperature response at the back surface at a certain distance away from the line-shaped illuminated area of a laser beam is measured by the infrareddetector and the thermal diffusivity value can be determined by comparing measured temperatureresponse curve with theoretical one. On the other hand, the measurement of thermal diffusivity in the direction perpendicular to the sample surface of a film, a pulsed laser beam whose diameter is about 10mm, is flashed onto the front surface of the sample. The temperature response at the back surface is measured by the infrared detector. The thermal diffusivity value can be determined by comparing with the theoretical solution including a pulse duration. The usefulness of the present method has been demonstrated by measuring successfully thermal diffusivities of metallic foil samples of platinum (25μm), copper (18μm), SUS304 stainless steel (50μm) and nickel (130μm).
The interfacial tensions of water-hydrocarbonacetic acid ternary systems were predicted. A predictive equation, Eq. (1), adopted here has been developed by the authors on the basis of the assumptions: the ratio of the decrease of interfacial tension of ternary system to that of binary system is equal to the mole fraction of solute adsorbed on the interfacial layer, and a Langmuir-type adsorption equation can be applied for solute between bulk and adsorbed phases. The equation contains two parameters α and β. Using the experimental interfacial tensions of the ternary systems containing ten kinds of hydrocarbons, the values of the two parameters α and β were determined. Although the values obtained are somewhat scattered, one parameter can be accepted to be a canstant and the other is represented as a linear function of the critical molar volume of hydrocarbon as shown by Eq. (7). The interfacial tensions of the ternary systems can be predicted within 6% fusing Eqs. (1) and (7).