Winter season of 2011, the outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI, H5N1) both in Japan and South Korea was completely different from those of past several years. After the occurrence of HPAI (H5N1) in Japan at 2004 in Yamaguchi prefecture etc., the positive cases of HPAI virus detection in wild birds was 1 to 3 cases per year. The same time, an outbreak of HPAI had been observed 1 to 4 cases per year in poultry farms. From the autumn of 2010 until the spring of 2011, however, 60 cases of wild birds consisting of 15 species were detected to be positive for HPAI virus, and 24 outbreaks of HPAI in poultry farms had been reported. It has been an abnormal frequency of HPAI infections. It seemed to be emerging from migratory birds coming from the north and gradually spread to the resident wild birds such as raptors. A similar trend may also occur after 2012. The possibility that rare bird species maintained in the zoo may be included in HPAI outbreak cannot be denied. The rare birds of the zoo are not applicable to the poultry defined by the MAFF, and they are not also adapted to the wild birds defined by the Ministry of Environment. They are outlaw of Ministries. Vaccines for HPAI have been stockpiled and new vaccines also have been developed in Japan. In order to protect the rare birds of the zoo from infection with HPAI, it is important to discuss whether or not to be vaccinating rare birds with avian influenza inactivated vaccine. This symposium is opened with a following concept. Now is the time that we should decide the measures for protection of rare birds in the zoo from HPAI outbreak.