Modern zoos have four roles: Conservation, Research, Education, and Recreation. Most zoos in Japan, however, have not played such roles at all, particularly in Research and Education. Kyoto City Zoo starts collaboration with Kyoto University in research and education on wildlife conservation. In April 2013, Kyoto City established Center for Research and Education of Wildlife (CREW) in Kyoto City Zoo to declare that the zoo play such roles by itself. In this article, I introduce ongoing studies and educational program in Kyoto City Zoo. Regarding research, I showed comparative cognitive studies in zoo primates and re-introduction project of a hand-reared gorilla infant. Regarding education, I show study program through practices with zoo materials in collaboration with local junior high school. Kyoto City Zoo has made efforts to get grants-in-aid for research, or education. I discuss about significance of getting grants from the view point of external evaluation.
The Wanpark Kochi Animal Land is municipal zoo of the Kochi city direct management that is compact urban facilities. The zoo is small but deep-rooted in Kochi area; the staff of the zoo have worked on wildlife conservation, accumulation and dispatch of the information, and contribution of the right understanding for the animal of the citizen through the display and research of the wildlife in the zoo inside and outside since opening of the zoo. Among them, some cases of research, conservation and activities focused on the area in Kochi prefecture were introduced, namely, 1) survey and breeding of rare and endangered species, 2) monitoring of infectious diseases from injured wildlife, 3) protection of the rare and endangered species in the public construction and 4) environmental education to citizens.
The principal task of the aquarium veterinarian is a health care of the captive animal. A clinical veterinarian should be conscious of a purpose definitely to improve results of prevention and the treatment of the disease. In other words, there is the task that you should conduct besides a routine task. It is difficult for a lot of aquarium veterinarians to do the research for researches practically. However, it is very likely that we can study the research connected directly with clinical treatment. In addition, the coordinate with the outside cooperator is important.
The cavity of the pharynx and hyoid bone of the shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) were examined by using the three dimensional computed tomography image analysis. The pharynx and the cranial part of the esophagus were extraordinarily bilaterally enlarged. The unfixed flexible hyoid bone and degenerated tongue were discerned. We suggest that these morphological characteristics functionally enable the species to receive the large prey item peculiar to the feeding behavior of the shoebill. The structure of the pharynx region may totally act as a flexible pouch to pass the large food to the alimentary tract. The bilateral asymmetry was also confirmed in the hyoid bone, cavities of the pharynx and cranial esophagus. We think that these asymmetrical forms may also contribute to the deglutition of large prey fish in the shoebill.
As a zoogeographical research, an analysis was made on the helminth fauna of Japanese common toads Bufo japonicus formosus introduced to Hokkaido Island in Japan, and 3 nematode and 1 acanthocephalan species were obtained from the toads captured at Asahikawa City between 2010 and 2011. Although these helminth species have been reported from the toads of Honshu, this is the first helminthological record of the toad on Hokkaido.
A helminthological survey was performed on 75 individuals of Tancho, Grus japonensis, from Hokkaido, Japan. A total of seven helminth species, including five nematode (Baruscapillaira sp., Contracaecum sp., Paracuaria adunca, Syncuaria sp., Viktorocara sp.) and two trematode (Echinostoma gotoi, Apatemon gracilis) species were obtained from 57.3% of the cranes, and E. gotoi was the most common encountered. Among the above helminths, all helminths except for E. gotoi were the first host records for G. japonensis worldwide, and Syncuaria sp. was the first geographical record from Japan. Since the acuariid nematodes including the genera Paracuaria, Syncuaria and Viktorocara are known to cause ulcerative ventriculitis and/or enteritis in bird alimentary tracts, monitoring of helminths is recommended in this endangered crane species.