As a model of phenotype of cartilage formation, the pattern and the number of tracheal cartilage rings were surveyed in three different groups of Macaca(macaque). They are easy to approach and to count or measure. For Japanese(J), Formosan(F)and Rhesus(R)monkeys, the length of trachea(from distal end of cricoid cartilage to tracheal carina)was J:4.6-8.5cm(average 6.86), F:7.0-9.1cm(averege 7.8)and R:5.6-7.7cm(average 6.76). The number of cartilage rings for J, F and R was 21.54±2.89, 23.63±3.46 and 22.55±2.43, respectively. The average number of fused rings in J, F and R was 2.8, 6.4 and 5.9. Practically all three groups of macaque had similar length of trachea and number of tracheal cartilage rings. Most of tracheal rings were complex type(J23/26, F8/8, R20/20)composed of two to four cartilage pieces. In cross section, the dorsal protion of C type ring was overlapped. Whether left or right half edge covers over the opposite half edge was not consistent. The number of cartilage rings was not always proportional to the length of trachea. The comparison of cartilage pattern of trachea to that of bronchus, the change of the pattern with age, the comparison of the pattern of parents with their offspring(genetical survey), and also the embryological survey of the tracheal cartilage pattern remained to be surveyed.
To compare the structure of forepaw of monkeys to that of human, the composition of skeleton and some muscles of a total of 27 Japanese monkeys(Macaca fuscata), 6 Taiwan macaques(Macaca cyclopis)and 6 rhesus monkeys(Macaca mulatta)were surveyed with X-ray, Arizarin red skeletal staining, and gross anatomy. All macaques had a central carpus which is not independent in human carpal bones. The order of length of metacarpal bones of macaques was III>II>IV>V while that of human was II>III>IV>V. The order of length phalanges was III>IV>II>V in both macaques and human. There were four types of arrangement of sesamoidal bones. Japanese and rhesus monkeys had three types and Taiwan macaques had all four patterns. In general, muscles of forepaw of macaques were similar to those of human hand but M.extensor digiti IV were more prominent than in human. M.contrahentes digitorum manus was specific to monkeys. Those features of skeletal and muscular arrangement suggested that the main function of forepaw of macaques was more specific to grip, branches of tree, etc., rather than to walk on the ground.