It is very important to monitor infectious diseases of mo animals and wildlife to prevent additional losses of animals, which contribute a lot to wildlife management and conservation, domestic animal hygiene and prevention of zoonosis. Thus, we would like to have a workshop " Infectious diseases 2002 in zoo animals and wildlife" to share up to date information for disease control. As infections to be in an emergency or warned, the following infections were focused ; chlamydiosis in zoo birds and moos, yersiniosis in nonhuman primates, cryptosporidiosis in reptiles and spongiform encephalopathy in zoo animals and wildlife. Besides, several possible infections to invade into Japan or of great concern to breakout are discussed. It would be desirable to settle a network for infectious diseases of zoo animals and wildlife to prevent animal loss and zoonosis.
Yersinia pseudotuberculosi is a zoonotic infectious agent causing disease in various animals and man. In this review, we describe outbreaks of yersiniosis experienced in squirrel monkeys of six facilities in Japan.
It is well known that the member in the genus Cryptosporidium has a broad host range among vertebrates. Recently, cryptosporidiosis in reptiles has widely recognized and has become a threat causing diarrhea with high mortality, and effective therapy has not yet been developed. In addition, reptilian Cryptosporidium species receive a great deal of attention in waterworks industries, since the oocysts that were supposed to derive from snake (s) occurred in the source water. This article reviews the recent knowledge of biological features and pathogenesis of Cryptosporidium, especially in reptiles.
Thirty two cases of tuberculosis infections in cercopithecid monkeys had been encountered at the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, during the period of 1971 to 1984. Among them, in 1971, tuberculosis outbreak of 21 Rhesus macaques occurred within populations that were under quarantine period and usually housed in the cage rooms. These animals were diagnosed by pathological and bacteriological analyses. The outbreaks were caused by reservoir animals that had already been infected before introduction. In 1985, two cases of suspected tuberculosis infections in chimpanzee and orang utan were observed, responding to intradermal mammalian old tuberculin (MOT) in the quarantine yards. 2 apes did not showed any clinical symptoms, nor characteristic X ray findings, hematological and blood chemistry values, while lymphadenopathy were observed in the orang utan. Bacteriological trials for detecting pathogenic mycobacterin from Laryngo pharyngeal and tracheal mucus and gastro washing juices showed negative results. It is supposed that 2 apes had already been infected before introduction by 2 zookeepers, who were under medication on tuberculosis. Prophylactic oral medication by Isoniazid and Rifampicin were performed daily during one year, monitoring MOT reactions and bacteriological detections. These suspected tuberculosis infections could be controlled successfully.
Mycobacterial infections including tuberclosis are still very important in monkeys, especially in macaques. Pathological features of tuberclosis and non tubercle mycobacteriosis in monkeys were studied. An outbreak of tuberclosis induced by Mycobacterium (M.) bovis was seen in a colony of rhesus macaques. Thirteen monkeys had acute course of disease, collapsed, and showed prominent yellowish white nodular lesions in the lungs, spleen, liver, lymph nodes and thoracic wall. Histologically, nodular lesions consisted of central caseous necrosis and surrounding large numbers of epithelioid cells and lymphocytes, and occasional Langhans'giant cells. Caseous necrosis contained occasional acid fast bacilli. On the other hand, M. avium/intracellulare caused granulomatous lesions mainly in the intestinal mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes, and less frequent in the liver, spleen and kidneys in SIV infected immune compromised rhesus macaques. Large numbers of foamy macrophages stuffed with numerous acid fast bacilli were infiltrated in the thickened intestinal mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes. Macaques might have rather high susceptibility to both mycobacterial infections, which warn of a possible outbreak of disease.
A female Camelus hactrianus, approximately 3 to 4 years old, was dissected at The Inner Mongolian Agricultural University, Huhhot, China. The whole reproductive organs were dissected out and small pieces of tissue from different parts were fixed with buffered glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide solution. They were embedded in the mixture of epoxy resin. Using semi thin (1 μm thick) sections stained with toluidine blue, ovary and epithelium of oviduct, uterine hore, uterus and cervics were examined at the light microscopic level. The epithelium linning oviduct contains dark basal cells, ciliated cells and mucous secreting cells. That of uterine horn is composed of ciliated and non ciliated cells. The cilia on apical border of epithelial cells in uterus are long and conspicuous. The uterine gland cells have dark secreting granules. The glandular cavity is occupied with mucous substance. Cervics is also lined with ciliated and non ciliated cells.
We made a necropsy on an adult male Kerama Deer (Cervus nippon keramae) that had most likely died by falling down a scarp on the island of Tokashiki, one of the Kerama islands in the Ryukyu archipelago. The deer weighed 33.5 kg, had a total length of 1360mm, a tail of length 101mm and a shoulder height of 770mm. The fat index around the kidneys was 18.5, suggesting of poor nourishment. From the body weight and tooth wear, the deer was estimated to be older than 8.5 years. There were no spermatozoa in the testes or the epididymis tracts, so the animal was not in heat. The deer had many ticks (Haemaphysalis mageshimaensis). There were fractures of the ribs, lumbar vertebrae and both femurs, and dislocation of the femural head with internal hemorrhage. Probably the fractures with hemorrhage was the cause of death. It is thought that the landform of the island has affected negatively to the Kerama deer. It may be necessary to try to prevent accidental falls by, for example, artificial excavation of some areas. In addition to protecting the Kerama deer, more carcasses should be collected and examined to clarify the ecological characteristics of the Kerama deer population.
This study was conduced on the parasitic helminths of 42 belly banded squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) and 53 nutrias (Myocastor coypus), captured in five prefectures in Japan. Brevistriata calloscinrus and Storongyloides sp. were obtained from the squirrels, and Storongyloides myopotami, Calodium hepaticum and Fasciola sp. were obtained from the nutrias.
The cone beam type computed tomography (CT) was used to three dimensionally observe the whole body of the naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and the lesser mouse deer (Tragulus jaVanicus). We observed the thin abdominal wall and weak thoracic and lumber vertebrae in the nakedmole rat in the three dimensional (3D) digitalized image. The flexible and thin abdominal wall may function to pass the soil behind the body, when the animal digs a hole using their incisors in this species. In the lesser mouse deer, the thin abdominal wall structure was also confirmed. We suggest that the elastic abdominal wall may be adapted to the fermentation in alimentary tract and the pregnancy of larger fetus in the uterus. The position of the scapula in the lesser mouse deer could be easily confirmed in 3 D digitalized images and we conclude that the cone beam type CT is suitable for the animal species larger than the lesser mouse deer in body size to visualize the whole skeleton, by removing soft parts.
We measured 63 skulls and flat skins in the three species of the genus Canis, the gray wolf, the coyote and the gulden jackal. The scattergrams and the regression equations were obtained in each sex using the measurement data of flat skins and skulls. The standard deviations of the measurement values were large in flat skins and some measurements were not correlated with those of the skulls. It may be due to the drying condition in each specimen of flat skin. However, the statistical relationships between the measurements of the skulls and the flat skins will he useful to identify the species and to estimate the body size in each individual. The present data will he available to examine and to compare the flat skin specimens in some extinct populations such as Japanese wolf.
The hyoid apparatus of Humboldt penguin was observed. The paraglossum consisted of cartilage, and it was buried in the tongue. The paraglossum was similar to the arrow shaped tongue. The basihyale was short and fused with the urohyale. The cornu had small paired caudal small processes of the paraglossum. The cornu branchiate consisted of the ceratobranchiale and the epibranchiale and length of the ceratobranchiale and the epibranchiale were in the ratio of approximately 3 to 1. The hyoid apparatus of Humboldt penguin has a unique character, the paraglossum completely consisted of cartilage, and the basihyale was fused with the urohyale.