The pharmacological actions of octopin isolated from sepia skin and some oxytocic drugs, i. e. pituitary posterior lobe preparation, adrenaline, acetylcholine, spartein etc. were investigated.1) The guinea pig uterus, nonpregnant and at term, was irresponsive to octopin, while to pituitary posterior lobe preparation responded with strong stimulation. In early pregnancy, the corporol region of guinea pig uterus responded to octopin with the increase of frequency of its contraction, but on the tone as well as the amplitude this drug was less effective.2) Octopin had no effects on the motilities of intestine and the tone of bronchial muscle in guinea pig as well as on the auricular contraction and the tone of ear blood vessels in rabbits.
The rabbits were sensitized by 1.0cc of human serum given intravenously every other day three times. Two weeks after sensitization, precipitation titer of rabbit serum was quantitatively measured in vitro and morphologically observed under phase-contrastmicroscope. Furtherly, existence of antigen specificity was investigated by comparing the cases added with human serum to those added with ovo-albumin to the human-serum-sensitized rabbits. 1) When corresponding antigen was added to the peripheral blood of human-serumrabbit in vitro, rate of leucocytic decrease was recognized to be increased, morphologically lysed, degenerated cells were increased in comparison with those of pre-sensitization. 2) Neutrophiles acted main part of role in the phenomenon of leucolysis, each neutrophile presented difference in reaction, so that there recognized various stages from nonaffected ones to lysed ones. 3) The cells to meet lysis presented distinct Brown movement of granules, and swelling of nucleus and cytoplasm, then destruction of cytoplasmic membrane was followed with the destruction of nucleic membrane. Such a course was completed mostly in a few minutes, and in ten to fifteen minutes at the latest. In the degenerating cells, there is also the difference of reaction, and required time is not constant, because of their grade of reaction. 4) No certain parallel relationship could be recognized between precipitating titer and the phenomenon of leucolysis. 5) In this experiment, antigen specificity was also recognized.
An investigation was made on the location of the factor in the phenomenon of leucolysis, influence of the heat, necessity of complement and the work of antigen and antibody to the leucocytes of different species. 1) Principal factor of the phenomenon of leucolysis exists in blood serum. 2) The factor of leucolysis is stable at 56.0 C for 30 minutes and it is considered to necessitate the complement. 3) In the existence of antigen and antibody, it was unable to lyse the leucocyte of different species, and species-specificity was recognized. 4) It is not to be considered that sensitized leucocytes are especially in a condition to cause lysis easily.
After a certain time following to the intra-peritoneal injection of physiologic saline solution to the rabbits, the peritoneal fluid was collected and physiologic saline solution containing 5% leucocyte suspension was prepared by means ofgathering leucocytes in that peritoneal fluid.2.0 cc of this solution were injected intraperitoneally to quinea pig every other day, five times. Serum was separated from the blood taken out entirely from the animals on the 10th day from the last immunization. The lytic activity of thus obtained anti-rabbit leucocyte quinea-pig-serum to the rabbit leucocytes was observed. Results were as follows: 1) Anti-leucocyte-serum showed agglutination titer of 8650×. 2) Anti-leucocyte-serum caused distinct degeneration to peripheral pseudoeosinophiles, and the cells going to complete lysis were recognized. 3) Anti-leucocyte-serum is stable at 56.0°C for 30 minutes, and necessitates the existence of the complement. 4) Anti-leucocyte-serum did not influence myeloblastes, promyelocytes were scarcely influenced, some of myelocytes were recognized slightly affected, and metamyelocytes were influenced to some extent. In another word, higher the maturity of the cells, the more of them were influenced.
The author has tried a life-historical analysis on thirty cases of neurotic depersonalization in regard to the psychogenesis. At the same time, the ego structure in these patients has been discussed. 1) The ability of estimation of love in these patients was seriously twisted as they had been loved too much or too little in their infancy. The character features such as peculiar sensitiveness in interpersonal relationship, monopolistic tendency, strong need for might, self-assertion, selfishness, etc. were all attribuable to the various factors in their infantile life-history. In common to the neurotics, the frustration tolerance (especially for love) was also extremely faible and the socialization of personality was pretty insufficient in these patients. This fact means the elevated susceptibility to affective frustrations in the future. 2) The depersonalization appears always after the intense inner tension for certain period, which signifies the consumption of psychological force ( Janet). The abrupt abasement of psychological tension is motivated by the sudden affective deprivation or by the strong menaces to or the sudden interruption of the tendency of self-enlargement in such circumstances. The depersonalization is caused by the reduction of the secondary action ( Janet) which is brought about by the abasement of psychological tension. At the same time, the state completely narcissistic would develop in such conditions just mentioned. On the contrary, the displacement of these motives and the resolution of the inner tension will play an important role in the disparition of the depersonalization symptoms. 3) Last of all, the depersonalization begins, according to Federn, whenever the outer ego-boundary becomes weak and consequently the egotized data concerned lose the energy cathexes. This weakening of the outer ego-boundary results, in my opinion, from the ego weakness which is attribuable to constitutional factors in one hand and to the intense inner tension for certain period on the other. In the psychogenesis of depersonalization, Federn emphasized the mechanism of projection of this primary ego disturbance to the outer objects. From the psychoanlytic point of view, the reduction of libido and mortido components in the ego cathexes to objects is the result of the relative increase of medial ego cathexes, which is the most primitive form of ego libido (Federn), caused by the lifehistorically developped narcissism. The organs and the functions to which libido is mostly invested in healthy state are influenced most seriously in the deprsonalized patients. Finally, it is relatively strengthened by the weakening of tile inner ego-boundary.
Experiments were done of the electromyography of the patients complaining vertigo with a view to its introduction for testing the vestibular function. As to the cause of vertigo the diseases suojected are grouped as follows, i. e. otitis media (7 cases), Meniere's disease (6 cases), disturbances of central nervous system (3 cases) and two other cases. Electromyograms were recorded from M. biceps brachi, M. solius and M. triceps brachi during the resting stage, the passive extention and the voluntary contraction respectively. In the course of a slight contraction of the muscles, observation was made of effects of the neck reflex and the labyrinthine caloric stimulation upon their discharge frequency.
An observation was made on the influence of osmotic pressure and pH to the leucocytes outside of the body. The solutions used were saline solution from 2.0% to 0% and isotonic saline solution with pH 5,6,7and 8. With low osmotic pressure, distinct destruction of leucocyte, and with high osmotic pressure, promotion of degeneration were recognized. In 0.6% to 1.2% saline solution, motility of neutrophiles was maintained, and the most long-lasting motility was recognized in 0.9% saline solution. Concerning to pH, in order of pH 5,8,6 and 7, the increase of motility was recognized.
Using a modified hot plate method by Woolfe & Macdonald, actions of salicylamide, N-acetylsalicylamide, acetylsalicylic acid, chlorpromazine,1-1,2-diphenyl-l-dimethylaminoethan, ethan, megimide and cardiazol on the reflex responses were investigated in mice by 55°Cheat stimuli. The reflex responses exerted in the experiment were divided into two groups; the one, jumping of neocortical nature and the other is of subcortical to spinal nature, i. e. tremor, kicking the hind legs and licking the fore or hind legs. (1) Salicylamide, N-acetylsalicylamide, chlorpromazine,1-1,2-dipheny 1-1-dimethylaminoethan and megimide prolonged the reaction time, in which the above described reflex responses were recognized. (2) Salicylamide, N-acetylsalicylamide and acetylsalicylic acid depressed the jumping in reflex responses. Chlorpromazine was less effective on this response while markedly depressed the other response. Megimide and cardiazol in small doses depressed jumping, and facilitated the reflex responses after subconvulsive doses. (3) On the central actions of these drugs, it was c onsidered that cortical mechanism was suppressed by salicylates and also by megimide and cardiazol in small doses, and that chlorpromazine depressed subcortical neurone- as well as brainstem-activities.
1) It is directly demonstrated with a new “glycerine spot method” (1952, Kotsuka)and the nicotine method that “sympathicus via posterior roots” (Kotsuka) are the efferent vasodilator nerves in the blood vessels in bullfrog's and frog's external eye muscles. These efferent vasodilator nerves are found 1. to pass through the posterior root (II) 2. to make a cell station at the spinal ganglion (II) 3. to pass through the sympathetic chain, and reach the blood vessels in the external eye muscles with the sympathicus via anterior roots (Langley). 2) It is revealed with a new “glycerine spot method” that the sympathicus via anterior root (II) (Langley) are possessed with a vasoconstricting action in the blood vessels of bullfrog's and frog's external eye muscles. 3) It is interpreted that the blood vessels of bullfrogs and frogs external eye muscles are subjected to “sympathetic double innervation”.
The general features and differences in the antigentic structures are studied of 4 variant strains obtained from a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on agglutination reaction and absorption test. The results obtained are as follows: 1. Serologically different antigens, i. e.4 thermostable I, II, V and VI, and 7 thermolabile ones 1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7 are detected in the 4 strains. 2. Strain No.58 is proved to have 7 kinds of antigens VI,1,2,3,5,6 and 7. 3. Strain No.117 has 9 antigens I, II, V,1,2,3,4,5 and 6. 4. Strain No.134 has 4 antigens I, II,1 and 2. It shares 4 antigens with strain No.145. 5. Strain No.145 has 6 antigens I, II,1,2,3 and 5. It is a pleasure to record here a debt of gratitude to Professor S. Osawa M. D. for his kindness in reading the original manuscript. To associate Professor E. Inoue M. D. I express my thanks for her suggestion and advice. Further the author is grateful to Dr. Y. Homma for supplying some strains used in this study.