In this text it is discussed that sympathomimetic effects of ephedrine may be elicited through the metabolic alteration of intracellular catecholamines. In cytoplasma, ephedrine is demethylated to norephedrine, possible active substance which may be liberator of noradrenaline from granules. Ephedrine tachyphylaxis may be related to the lecreased production of norephedrin and the adrenaline-receptor block by ephedrine.
A comparative study has been carried out of acute and chronic toxicities of heparin and heparinoid SP-54 in mice, rats and rabbits. All animals were kept on standard pellet diets during the course of the experiments. 1. The LD 50 of heparinoid SP-54 was 5.10mg/lOg of body weight when the drug was subcutaneously injected in mice. 2. Tissues of rats killed after subcutaneous injection of heparinoid SP-54 were examined in their acute pathological changes macro- as well as microscopically. In most cases hemorrhagic -edema was found in liver, lung and spleen, but not in other tissues. Some animals showed intraperitoneal bleeding. These findings were remarkable in rats given the drug in doses of 40mg and 100mg/100g of body weight. 3. Heparinoid SP-54 prolonged blood coagulation time in rabbits given intravenously in dose of 10mg/kg. The effect was less than that of heparin in the same dose. 4. Chronic toxicities of heparinoid SP-54 and heparin were compared in rats given the drug subcutaneously in doses of 1mg and 2mg/100g of body weight once a week for 13 weeks. The body weight gain curves of rats were investigated during the prolonged administration of the drug. These curves showed that administration of the drug did not cause any significant difference from control rats. By microscopic examination, however, hemorrhagic tendency was. found in lung and spleen of rats given in dose of 2mg/100g of heparin or heparinoid SP-54.
In an attempt to find a suitable medium for the cultivation of the frog trypanosome, media such as the N. N. medium (Novy and Mac Neal) and various modifications, the N. N. N. medium and Mo's medium were tested. The most satisfactory results were obtained by the addition of 0.4% saline to the slant of the N. N. medium using defibrinated rabbit blood so that the quantity of condensation water is increased. With this medium trypanosome proliferate in the fluid portion and a film is formed on the fluid surface, with further cultivation a white precipitate is formed on the floor of the fluid portion. The blood or serum of various species of animals was substituted for the 0.4% saline and tested. Growth was not obtained with the defibrinated blood of other species. In the case of active serum, a slight effect was noted with the serum of the Rana catesbiana, guinea pig and rabbit, but proliferation was not seen, while proliferation was clearly enhanced by inactivation of the serum of the same animals especially the rabbit. The serum of toad, dog, goat, cat, chicken and man were not suited. The fact that defibrinated rabbit serum has a growth promoting effect when combined with N. N. media while it in itself dose not, can be attributed to an inactivation of the serum by the temperature of the medium at the time of mixing.
It has already been known that the crawfish serum has no complement activity and produces antigoat haemolysin by the injection of goat erythrocytes. But Osawa and Inoue previously found a peculiar phenomenon that the serum of crawfish, when normal human or rabbit serum being injected, shows the lysis of goat red cells with the presence of complement. It follows that the existence of a certain heterogenous antibody against goat red cell in the antirabbit crawfish serum is expected. Since haemolysin is found in crawfish serum one hour after the injection of rabbit or human serum and its titre is no more than 8 fold dilution of antiserum, the cause of the, the cause of the haemolysin is supposed whether it is newly produced in the creature or is carried over from the injected serum. When the rabbit serum of low heterohaemolysin titre or the rabbit serum whose normal heterohaemolysin being absorbed with goat erythrocytes is used for injection, the crawfish serum shows no longer lysis of goat red cells. In conclusion, we are led to consider that the antigoat haemolysin which appears in the serum of crawfish into which human or rabbit serum is injected may be caused from the normal heterohaemolysin contained in the injected human or rabbit serum.
Though numerous studies have been published on the physiological properties of Ps. aeruginosa. the requirements and mechanisms of pigment production have not yet been fully clarified. From the structural similarity of anthranilic acid with the phenazine nucleus in pyocyanin, it was assumed that anthranilic acid may play a role as a precurser in the production of pyocyanin. In this paper the results of experiments on the effect of anthranilic acid on the pigment production of Ps. aeruginosa, using about 20 strains conserved in our laboratory, are presented and discussed. When anthranilic acid alone is added to the basic medium (KH2PO4, MgSO4, (NH4)2CO3, NaCl) neither pigment nor fluorescence is produced. Addition of anthranilic acid in combination either with glycine & glycerol or with glutamic acid results in pigment production. It was found however, that the removal of anthranilic acid from the media dose not affect the pseudomonal pigmentation in the basic medium supplemented with glutamic acid alone, and pigment and fluorescence are rapidly produced with a difference in colouring according to each strain. The isomers of anthranilic acid, kynurenin,3-hydroxyanthranilic acid and cathecol, each having a similar structure to anthranilic acid, do not affect the pigment production. Differing from our expectation, these findings suggest that anthranilic acid has no effect, but glutamic acid plays a significant role in the pigment production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Studies have been carried out on the conditions and mechanism of pigment production of Ps. aeruginosa and it has been found that pigment production is the greatest, when glutamic acid is added in a concentration of 0.1 M. to a basic medium composed of KH2PO2, MgSO4, and NaCl. With this medium, a brilliant yellow pigment is produced soon (in about 13 hours) by many of the strains of Pseudomonas and a pronounced fluorescence is presented under ultra violet radiation at the same time. With further cultivation, characteristic pyocyanin is produced and with some strains, red pigment is produced while the yellow pigment is maintained in the case of other strains. Compared to other media, the pigment and fluorescence with the glutamic acid medium are produced earlier and the intensity is more pronounced. The culture fluid was examined by paper chromatography and the findings suggest that there is a relationship between changes in the glutamic acid and the formation of the green and red pigment. The ultraviolet absorption curve of the culture fluid filtrate suggests that there is a conversion from the fluorescent substance in the early stage to the later green and red pigment. It is believed that this glutamic acid medium will serve as a valuable aid in the isolation of Psuedomonas and for studying pigment production of this organism.
Ballistocardiograms were recorded on 100 male subjects and on 25 female subjects. All of these two groups of subjects were normal healthy persons without any cardiovascular symptoms, and averaging 24 years old (ranging from 17 to 33 years) in male group, and 19 years old (ranging from 17 to 25 years) in female group. Recording at three states were (1) in the resting state (at least 3 hours postabsorptive,30minutes after smoking, and 5 minutes after resting in recumbent), (2) after excercise (20times of leg flection as rapid as possible), (3) and during deep respiration. Lead 1 of the electrocardiogram was taken simultaneously in all case, to record timing of the onset of the cardiac cycle. The time of occurrence of each HIJ and K peak were measured from the onset of the QRS wave of the electrocardiogram. Ballistocardiograms were recorded by direct method with the lever system electromagnetic pick-up modified from the original Dock-Tauman type, and the single beam type electrocardiograph (electromagnetic oscillograph). Following results were obtained. 1. High normality was obtained in 125 resting ballistocardiograms of healthy persons, as classified by Brown's classification. 2. In normal ballistocardiogram, all recording could be identified with each systolic waves (HIJ and K), The J wave was the highest deflaction of systolic waves, and the magnitude of the H and K deflection were 50% of J deflection, and I deflection was 60% of the J deflection. In male group, generally, higher records could be obtained than female group in amplitude. The IJ deflection which is designated as the ventricular ejection curve averaged 20% higher in male than in female. 3. In after excercise recording, general form of Ballistocardiograms were grossly identical with that of resting in male group, whereas the K wave was slightly less than that of resting record, and H and L waves were increased in proportion to the IJ deflection. 4. The ratio of inspiratory IJ deflection to expiratory IJ deflection (respiratory ratio)has a mean value of 1.3 at normal resting respiration. The deeper respiration the greater the respiratory ratio, and respiratory ratio reached to 2 at the deepest respiration. The increase in respiratory ratio in deep respiration was caused principally by the increase in inspiratory IJ deflection. The expiratory IJ deflection at resting and deep respiration was relatively constant. 5. The real amplitude of body ballistic movement was calculated from the induced electromotive force of the pick-up used and time interval of each waves. In normal healthy adult, calculated amplitude of real ballistic body movement due to heart contraction at resting state averaged from 100 to 200 microns.
The effect of histamine on inulin spaces of various tissues such as lung, cardiac muscle?liver, skeletal muscle, intestine and spleen were studied in rabbits.8 normal rabbits wereused as control and on 8 rabbits effect of histamine was observed. Rabbits of both groups were nephrectomized in the same day of experimentation. Inulin was administered intravenousely. Total inulin space was easured after 2 hours of equilibration. Blood samples were collected at every 30 minutes and assayed for inulin. Tissue inulin_space, expressed as tissue inulin concentration (mg/ml)/Plasma inulin concentraton(mg/gm)×100, varied tissue to tissue, The order of magnitude of tissue inulin space was lung, cardiac muscle, spleen, skeletal muscle, intestine and liver. Histamine produced decrease of tissue inulin space as well as total body inulin space as. compared to control.
A painter, thirty-seven years old, suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis, showed the irritation of skin with high fever by taking PAS. Then I gave him PAS 1 g. and anti-histamine (Allergin-Sankyo) 1 g. daily and gradually increased the dose of PAS. PAS patch test was negative. Outcome: After desensitization the patient showed no reaction in spite of taking PAS 10 g. daily without anti-histamine.
Department of Pathology, Kansai Medical School A 39 years old houswife was diagnosed as having monocytic leukemia. Clinical symptoms and the peripheral blood picture were improved by administration of steroid hormone combined with anticancer drugs (6-Mercapto-Purine, and Mitomycin C), but the bone marrow showed no improvement. The patient died 6 months after the onset of symptoms. Among the necropsy findings were ulceration of the stomach and massive atrophy of the adrenals, perphaps, due to prolonged treatment with steroid hormone and infiltration with leukemic cells.