The pharmacological and toxicological effects of two Formosan snake venoms, Agkistrondon acutus Gunther (A. a. V. ) and Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus Cantor (T. m. V. ), were comparatively examined in mice, rats and rabbits. (1) The maximal tolerable or minimal lethal dose of A. a. V. administered into the ear vein of rabbits was about 1 mg/kg, which dose caused a transient respiratory stimulation followed by a gradual inhibition, leading to respiratory paralysis following a precipitous fall of blood pressure 30 to 90 minutes after administration. The maximal tolerable or minimal lethal. dose of T. m. V. in rabbits was 0.5 mg/kg, which dose caused respiratory paralysis and a fall of blood pressure soon after administration; if death did not occur immediately after administration, paralysis of respiration following a precipitous fall of blood pressure was not to be observed as in the case of A. a. V. administration. (2) The LD50 of A. a. V. and T. m. V. subcutaneously injected in mice were 0.014 mg and 0.100 mg/10g respectively within 24 hours after administration. But in the lethal A. a. V. cases death occured within 3 hours, whereas, in the lethal T. m. V. cases ranged over a period of from 5 minutes to 24 hours. The toxic symptom brought on by A. a. V. were clonic convulsion with respiratory paralysis, whereas those brought on by T. m. V. were motor depression and quiet death. The LD50 of A. a. V. was increased by the previous subcutaneous administration of ε-aminocapronic acid in a dose of 100mg/10g 30 minutes before A. a. V. administration, but the lethal dose of T. m. V. was conversely decreased by the drug. (3) The intracutaneous reactions of T. m. V. in rabbits was hemorrhagic and exudative, and stronger than those of A. a. V.. (4) The atrial movement of rabbits was arrested by the application of A. a. V. in the concentration of 3×10-5g/ml, but not by the addition of T. m. V. even in the concentration of 9×10-5g/ml. (5) Rat diaphragm contraction by electric stimulation was suppressed by the application of A. a. V. in the concentration of 10-5 g/ml, but was suppressed by that of T. m. V. in the concentration of 5×10-5g/ml. (6)The intestinal movement of rabbits was slightly augmented by the application of A. a. V. or T. m. V.. These experimental results led to the following conclusions: a) the lethal factors of these snake venoms differ from their inflammatory factors, b) the lethal elect of A. a. V. is greater than that of T. m. V. but the inflammatory effect of A. a. V. is less than that of. T. m. V..
In this laboratory Fujita, and Tamada demonstrated that the metastatic incidence of tumor bearing animals following surgery under hypothermia was somewhat enhanced. The purpose of this report is to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the augmentation of metastatic incidence in tumor bearing animals following hypothermia. In order to investigate the effect of hypothermia upon the detachment of cancer cells from their primary site, two sets of experiments were carried out. In one, the fluctuation of adhesiveness of tumor cells of Yoshida sarcoma or Walker carcinosarcoma 256 in a course of hypothermia, were measured by a method devised by Coman. In the other, the mutual adhesiveness of ascites hepatoma (AH 7974) through hypothermia was measured by Yamada's method. It was shown that hypothermia caused the mutual adhesiveness of ascites hepatoma to dissociate, resulting in a liberation of tumor cells of Yoshida sarcoma and Walker carcinosarcoma 256 from the primary site. Next to this finding, we investigated the effect of hypothermia upon the stickiness of Yoshida sarcoma to siliconized glass by Coman's method. As a result, we could reveal that hypothermia caused the tendency of tumor cells to stick more easily to the siliconized glass surface. The cell viability of Yoshida sarcoma was fairly damaged by hypothermia. It was shown that mitochondorial damage contributed to the cell degeneration. From these observation, it is inferred that the liberation of tumor cell from their nests, i. e., the first step of metastatic spread, can take place more easily under hypothermic stress. Moreover, the stickiness of liberated tumor cells may tend to increase at the stage of rewarming. But no attempt has been made in the present study to ascertain the cause of decreased adhesiveness of tumor cells following hypothermia. With the hope that the decreased adhesiveness of hypothermia would be substantially controlled with the use of anticancer agent, we investigated the effect of adjuvant use of anticancer agents, i. e., Mitomycin C, Toyomycin, and Endoxan to hypothermia upon their adhesiveness or stickiness. From the results obtained from these experiments, we could reveal that adjuvant chemotherapy with Mitomycin C, Toyomycin, and Endoxan to hypothermia, afford an effect to strengthen intracellular bond, but has no effect upon the stickiness of tumor cells. The anticancer agents may be of significant value of use to control the hypothermia-induced detachment of tumor cells from the primary site
Twenty-four cases of school-phobic children were investigated, at Osaka City Central Child-guidance Clinic, in regard to factor of heredity and personality structure as well to those of development. The results of this survey were summarized as follows: 1) As to hereditary factors, psychotic disposition could not be found in clients in lower primary school ages. But in those in higher school ages schizophrenia and depression were abundantly found in the relatives of the patients. This fact hinded us that school-phobia in them might often be considered as abortive forms of endogenous psychoses. 2) The discontents towards teachers in charge, to the school curriculum or to the lunch service of school were frequently complained by children in higher school ages as the precipitating factors of school-phobia. The essential motives should, however, be considered rather on the side of children themselves, as these discontents seemed us as mere subterfuge. 3) Though the economical state of the families of the patients was fairly good, distortion of parent-child relationship and neurotic personality structures in parents were observed in most of the cases. 4) The school-phobia children were already provided with neurotic traits before the onset. The results of psychological tests permited us to divide those patients into neurotic and immature groups. The cases in primary school ages belonged to the fewer group and those in higher school ages to the latter as a rule.
In this report, experiments were done mainly to compare the results of carbon dioxide absorption and moisture changes of soda lime during an intermittent gas flow with those during the continuous gas flow reported previously in Part II.
Fibrin Film is a thin membranous strip of fibrin recently produced for public for clinical use as an ointment for dressing wounds. Clinical studies on the effectiveness of this material are reported in this paper with the following conclusions. 1) This film was embetted in the tissue adjacent to the tibia of four patients and was found that this film can be safely packed into areas surrounding human bony tissue. 2) In dressing open wounds this film was found effective with wounds which are clean and whose grade of infection is extremely low but not effective with wounds associated with pus or exudate. 3) The clinical use of this film can best be indicated for clean fresh wounds without any sign of infection or inflammation such as fresh clean skin laceration or sterile finger tip wound in which the nail is extracted.