Biological actions of hormones are so complicated in vivo that the initial effect of them to the living cells can be recognized exactly, because hormones are influenced by each other in the living being. Direct actions of hormones upon the cultured cells in vitro must be investigated in order to detect the initial effect of them. But, it is difficult to apply steroid hormone into the mediums for tissue cultures because of its solubility. In this point of view, this investigation was carried out and the references of the subject were reviewed. The emulsions of such steroid hormones as estradiol, stilbestrol, progesterone, testosterone propionate, cortisone and desoxycorticosteronre were prepared by means of Tween 80. The inhibitory effects of them on the fibroblasts from the heart of chick embryo were detected. For the controls Tween 80 and emulsion of sesame oil were observed in the several concentrations. The water-soluble estrogenic substance, sodium-p-(3-p-hydroxyphenyl)-4-n-hexyl)phenyloxyacetate, was applied into the mediums for tissue cultures. This chemical compound has strong estrogenic activity(5γ=1 r. u. )It was distinguished by the growth index and the phase contrast microscopic observations that the cultured liver cells and the fibroblasts from the heart of chick embryo were inhibited by the cytotoxic effect of this compound.
Because of low incidence of sarcoidosis in the west part of Japan this disese is sometimes confuesd with other disease. Afer presenting clinical and histopathologic findings which appeared in a 43-year-old woman the author reviewed clinical and histologic pictures which were presented in 112 cases of sarcoidosis reported in Japanese literature. The eyes or the ocular adnexa were involved in 80% of 112cases. As preveous authors described eye symptoms are found in high incidence and the importance of eye examination in making a diagnosis of sarcoidosis is emphasized.
Development and maturation during the 5th instar larvae of the posterior silk gland of silkworm, Bombyx mori, have been studied electron microscopically. For convenience, development of the gland could be discussed in terms the of following four phases. ( 1 ) The first or lag phase (5th instar 0-12 hours). The ultrastructure of the posterior silk gland cell during this phase is essentially similar to that in later moulting stage of the 4th instar. Rough endoplasmic reticulum is not well developed and many free ribosomes are observed. ( 2 ) The second or proliferation phase (5th instar 24-96 hours). The silk gland starts to grow very rapidly. Especially rough endoplasmic reticulum proliferates explosively, and the cytoplasm is filled with large lamellar endoplasmic reticulum. Concentric lamellar structure (whorl structure) of endoplasmic reticulum is occasionally found around at 96 hours. ( 3 ) The third phase or the stage of fibroin biosynthesis (5 th instar 96 hours-fully maturated larvae). Proliferation of rough endoplasmic reticulum is followed with the biosynthesis of fibroin. Lamellar endoplasmic reticulum is now transformed to tubular or vesicular endoplasmic reticulum, the cavities of which become enlarged, probably filled with synthesized fibroin. Golgi vacuoles, Golgi vesicles, and secretion granules also increase in number. ( 4 ) The fourth phase or cytolytic phase (fully maturated larvae-pupal ecdysis). The morphological change in the last phase of the 5th instar larvae is quite different from the previous three phases and will be described in the second report of this series.
During spinning, cytolytic processes of the posterior silk gland start to appear. These processes are precipitously enhanced after finishing spinning and the posterior silk gland cells disappear almost completely within one or two days. Electron microscopic observation revealed the following findings: First, paired membranes appear along rough endoplasmic reticulum. Then the membranes grow gradually, enclosing rough endoplasmic reticulum, and the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) isolation bodies are formed. Probably these bodies are then transformed first to cytolysome and then to the usual lysosomes. Histochemical examination showed that acid phosphatase reaction is positive either on the cytolysomes and lysosomes, but not on the ER isolation bodies. Cytolytic or autolytic enzymes are probably accumulated within these lysosomes and then released into cytoplasm to autolyse it.
OsO4 was not effective for the preservation of the posterior silk gland of the 4th instar larvae, while glutaraldehyde fixation was essential for this purpose. Glutaraldelyde fixation, post fixation with OsO4 and block staining with uranium acetate were conventionally used throughout this experiment. Structure of the cytoplasm of the posterior silk gland in the early stage of the 4th instar larvae is very similar to the 2nd or the 3rd stage of the 5th instar larvae, well developed vesicular or tubular rough endoplasmic reticulum with enlarged cavities and the Golgi vacuoles being abundantly observed. Just befor or at the begining of the 4th moulting, however, membrane components of rough endoplasmic reticulum, outer nuclear envelops, Golgi membranes, inner and outer mitochondrial membranes, etc disappear, while inner nuclear envelops and cell membranes remain unchanged. At the end of the 4th moulting these membranes reappear. Biological significance of this disappearance of these membranes during the moulting cycle of the silkworm was discussed.
Urinary estrogens (E) were determined by means of fluorimetric method described previously in normal young adults and normal aged adults of both sex as well as in patients with pituitary-adrenocortical disorders, gonadal disease and chronic liver disease, totalling 80 subjects. Each fraction of estrone (EO), estradiol (ED) and estriol (ET)was measured in every subjects. In a part of them, in where ACTH-test with daily injections of 20 units ACTH-Z for 3 days, suppression test with Dexamethasone and Gonadotropin test were performed, change of urinary excretion on estrogens was also studied. The results obtained from thus measured 222 times totally are summerized as follows. 1) In 8 subjects of normal young adult males(20-28 years old), the mean of daily excretion of urinary total estrogens (E) and its standard deviation (SD) were found to be 16.35×5.03μg(EO: 3.03×1.69μg, ED: 2.63×1.73μg and ET: 10.58×2.96μg). The mean and its SD of daily excretion per 1 m2 of body surface area, measured in 6out of 8 sublects, was 7.32×3.82μg. The means and their SD of total E in 7normal young menstruating femals (20~34 years old) during follicular phase and luteal phase were 23.07×12.2μg(EO: 5.97×3.10μg, ED: 4.31×2.08μg and ET: 13.21×4.39μg)and 41.55×14.40μg(EO: 12.73×2.50μg, ED: 7.89×3.40μg and ET: 21.00×5.45μg)respectively. The mean and the SD in 8 normal aged males(70-84years old)was 9.88×4.73μg for total E(EO: 1.51×0.80μg, ED: 1.77×1.35μg and ET: 6.60×3.47μg)with a conversion value per 1 m2 of body surface area as 7.32×3.82μg which was calculated in 5 out of 8 subjects. The means and their SD in 8 normal aged feamles(69-84 years old)was 8.45×3.12μg for total E(EO: 1.56×1.34μg, ED: 1.90×1.52μg and ET: 5.00×2.73μg)and 7.18×3.26μg for E excretion per 1 m2 of body surface area calculated in 5 out of 8 subjects. 2) A change of total E excretion was observed on ACTH-test in 2 normal young males, which illustrated that the daily excretions orderly increased by injection of ACTH with the maximum value being on the third day and rapid return to the preinjected value after discontinuation of the injection. The minimum, maximum and average values of the sum of amount of increases on the second and the third days of ACTH injection were 15.1μg,116.1μg and 49.9μg respectively in normal adult males,31.4μg,96.6μg and 50.0μg espectively in 5 normal menstruating females,8.3μg 37.5μg and 24.6μg respectively in 5 normal aged males and 6.4μg,4.97μg and 19.1μg respectively in 4 normal aged females.
On a total of 273 children, composed of 190 exposed (103 males and 87 females)and 83 non-exposed (42 males and 41 females) children, who were randomly selected from the 874 subjects of the adolescence study of children exposed to the atomic bomb in utero at Nagasaki, urinary excretion of estrogens (E) was determined every three months during the age between 13¼ year and 15 years old of each case. The results were analysed statistically in accordance with distance from the hypocenter, month of gestation at the time of exposure and sex. Comparisons were madeon means and changes by age. The results of analysis are summerized as follows. 1) The means of urinary excretion of (E) in the non-exposed group showed less changes during the age between 13 and 14 years in both sex, but a distinct increase was seen during the age between 14 and 15 years. A slight higher excretion was seen in female children than males during the age between 13 and 14 years which was not statistically significant. A greater confidence intervals of means at every three male during the age between 13 ¾ and 14 years was demonstrated in female than months groups. 2) The means of urinary excretion of (E)showed no significant difference among the proximal, distal exposed and non-exposed groups at every three months during the age between 13 and 14 years, while less increases and lower means at every time were demonstrated in the former 2 groups than the last group during the age between 14 ¼and 15 years. This resulted low slope of increase rather than acute on the every 3months changing curve through this period. This trend was, however, more distinct in the distal exposed group than proximal exposed. In femals, no significant difference wea observed between proximal and distal exposed and non-exposed groups. 3) In comparison of urinary (E) bymonth ofgestation,1-3th month,4-6th month and 7-10th month of gestation, the mean of each period was not statistically different between exposed and non-exposed in all groups of gestation in both sex except for the malegroup of 7-10th month gestation where the means at each period during the age between 14 and 15 years showed lower values in exposed group than same age of non-exposed group which was statistically significant. A relatively slow slope of increasing curve, therefore, was seen in this male exposed group.