The functional significance of recruiting response was studied in rabbits in relation to the mechanism of cardiazol which prolongs barbiturate anesthesia. The results obtained were as follows. Following an 8 c/s stimulation on the thalamus, intravenous administration of a small dose of barbiturate to rabbits resulted in the development of recruiting response in EEG and arrest in behavior, which failed to developed in the pre-administration stage. A similar findings was obtained concerning spike and wave, and behavior following a 3 c/s stimulation. The above results were due to a free development of function of the diffuse thalamocortical projection system which are responsible for the development of recruiting response, and spike and wave. Because a small dose of barbiturate inhibited the function of the brain stem reticular formation which works antagonistically to the diffuse thalamocortical projection system. When barbiturate was administere d followed by cardiazol at 10 mg/kg each, further increase than with barbiturate only was obserbed in the thresholds of arousal reaction in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and of evoked muscular discharge in the fore and hind limbs due to stimulation of the brain stem reticular formation. Following a destruction of n. centrum medianum (CM) or n. ventralis anterior (VA), which are among the diffusely projecting nuclei, no further increase of the thresholds was observed. Thus it was demonstrated a prolongation of barbiturate anesthesia by cardiazol was related with the diffusely projecting nuclei such as CM or VA. In experiments in terms of righting reflex the sub sequent administration of cardiazol prolonged a duration of barbiturate anesthesia in animals whose n. ventralis lateral part (VL) were bilaterally destroyed but not in animals whose diffusely projecting nuclei were bilaterally destroyed. The present data confirmed that the diffusely projecting nuclei played a part in prolonging a duration of barbiturate anesthesia by cardiazol on the basis of behavior. It was also clarified that VL worked antagonistically to the diffuse projection system in the central nervous system.
A study was made of the actions of various drugs on average evoked potential from the cerebral cortex, the brain stem reticular formation, CM and the hippocampus following stimulation of the sciatic nerve, intestines and uterus in rabbits. I. Following stimulation of the sciatic nerve, intestines and the uterus, there appeared spike like negative response (N1, N2, N3) followed by positive response (P) in the cerebral cortex. 2. Follo wing stimulation of the sciatic nerve, intestines and the uterus, there appeared spike like negative response (RN1, CN1, HN1) follwed by slight curved negative response (RN2, CN2, HN2) in the brain stem reticular formation, CM and the hippocampus. 3. Morphine chiefly inhibited N1, RN1, CN1, HN1, and HN2; it eith er inhibited or accelerated N2, N3, P, RN2 and CN2. Thus it was led to assume that the afferent pathway consists of one nervous system which was related with the development of N1, RN1, and CN1 and the other nervous system which was related with N2, RN2, and CN2, the former system being responsible for the development of pain. 4. Barbiturate inhibited N1, N2, N3, RN2, CN1, and HN1, a ccelerated P. either inhibited or accelerated RN1, CN2, and HN2. It characteristically inhibited RN2 markedly. Therefore it was strongly suggested that the nervous system which was related with the development of RN2 took part in the forming of consciousness. 5. Experiments with aminopyrine, chlorpromazine and myanesin as to average evoked potential revealed that these agents acted similarly on RN1 and HN2. The above data supported to conclude that the nervous system which was related with the development of HN2 in the hippocampus might be responsible for the development of pain keeping a certain relationship with pain reaction.
Objective and quantitative analysis of the tubal dysfunction is receiving much attention as one of the last important problems left in the field of Tympanoplasty, and increasingly many studies are being made on this question lately. The recent studies on the Eustachian tube are classified broadly as follows: X-ray methods (Suzuki, Compere, Aschan, Yamaguchi, Katagiri, S. Takahara, Miyazaki, and Ito) Examination of foreign body expelling function (Rogers, Fukamachi, Kumazawa, et al., and Katagiri, et al. ) Acoustic methods (D ishoeck, Perlman, Tsukamoto, Tashiro, Elpern, Gyergyay, and Watanabe, et al. ) Impedance m ethods (Metz, Thomsen, and Holmquist) Methods concerning tubal air movents
84 patients (100 ears) with sudden deafness, other neural deafness, tinnitus, or unidentified discomforts in the head were treated with the stellate ganglion block. The treatment was effective in 80% of the sudden deafness cases. This result is in conformity with the general belief that the stellate ganglion block has a remarkable effect on sudden deafness. Even with the other neural deafness cases, for which no treatment has been believed available, we could get the efficacy rate of 12.2%. As for the tinnitus cases the rate was 69.5%. Generally we can expect a good result when remission is observed after the first or second treatment. Our study shows that the stellate ganglion block is a very effective method that should be tried in the case of nerve disturbances in the field of otolaryngology. It is true that this treatment method is sometimes accompanied by side effects such as shocks, palpitation with cold perspiration, etc., even if we take enough care. They are, however, of a very slight kind, and we need not worry about them when an oxigen inhaler and other emergency measures are prepared. Therefore, it is highly desirable for every otolaryngologist to become skillful with this technique. The working mechanism of the stellate ganglion block cannot be explained by the improvement of blood circulation alone. Clarification of the mechanism is a subject for the future studies.
Thus far, many reports have been presented on the general histochemical characteristics of ceroid. However, their contents seem to have been limited to descriptions as to whether the use of various histochemical methods yields positive or negative findings on this pigment; therefore, reports dealing histochemically with significance of such findings, their interrelations as well as the components of the pigment, can be said to be hitherto scarcely seen. Against this background, the auther has reviewed the various histochemical positive results obtained on ceroid, and has contrived the histochemical assay methods for ceroid by the combined employment of various pretreatments which might lead towards the discrimination of ceroid from lipofuscin.