The contention that ceroid is directly derived from unsaturated lipids, has been widely held since HASS achieved the artificial production of acid-fast, fat solvent-insoluble copolymers in the subcutaneous tissues of guinea pigs. On the other hand, HARTROFT et al. reporte d that the occurrence of sudanophilic material surrounded by red blood cells in the ruptured fatty cysts in the liver of rats fed a diet low in choline suggests that erythrocytes may be closely bound to the occurrence of ceroid. In the present study, it was found that the ceroid-type copolymers derived from the subcutaneously injected unsaturated fats, could be differentiated from ceroid in the lymph nodes since both sudanophilia and the mercury-affine reaction of the copolymers were retained despite the loss of those in ceroid after oxidation with peracetic acid followed by treatment with methylation. From these results, an attempt was made to prove that the formation of ceroid would be intimately connected with the phagocytosis of erythrocytic stroma by macrophages. A suspension of erythrocytic stroma was intraperitoneally or subcutaneously administered to young rats to examine whether ceroid could be found in macrophages in the lymph nodes and others within several weeks after administration. Consequently, it was frequently found that considerable amounts of "immature ceroid"from the 7th post-administrative day and of ceroid from approximately the 21st postadministrative day coexist with comparatively small amounts of hemosiderin in some hypertrophied macrophages. Such findings could not be recognized in the macrophages in un-treated young rat lymph nodes where moderate amounts of ceroid alone were occasionally seen. Therefore, it is probable that the origin of ceroid coexisting with hemosiderin in the macrophages would be traceable to red cell envelope which contains protein-bound phospholipid as its main components.
Reported here a case of leukemic reticulum cell sarcoma treated with bleomycin. The patient,53 year-old female, was admitted to the surgical department of our hospital with a complaint of indolent tumor on the left hip. Although resection of the tumor was performed as a skin cancer, histological examination revealed reticulum cell sarcoma, and afterwards hematological examination made in our department revealed leukemic reticulum cell sarcoma. Then bleomycin was administered in our clinic, with temporary regression of lymphnode swelling. However, the patient died before bleomycin was sufficiently administered.
An optimum filtering method devised by D. O. Walter on the basis of the Wiener filter theory is implemented by means of a general purpose digital computer and is applied to estimation of visual potentials evoked by a single photic stimulus over the scalp. Two essential points are stressed; one is that the Wiener filter me thod is more effective for minimizing noise and artifacts than any other method (comparison with the conventional average or arithmetic mean is made), and the other is the fact that presentations of photic stimuli should be aperiodic rather than periodic so as to reduce interference between evoked potentials and background processes such as the alpha activity. The Wiener-filtered result and the averaged one are compared. The former is rather smooth and simple in waveform compared to the latter. A typical visual evoked potential recorded from a normal male by Wiener filtering exhibits a bi-phasic structure, It is almost flat during the first period (0-40 msec), and then shows a pattern characteristic of photic stimulus only in the range of 40-300 msec after the stimulus. Two predominant peaks, one positive in the range of 70-90 msec with amplitude of 2-10μv, the other negative in the range of 140-180 msec with amplitude of 4-14μv, are the most essential responses to a photic stimulus except for minor quantitative differences among individual subjects and experiments. In the range beginning from 300 msec after the stimulus, the waveform becomes almost flat and shows no tendency to verify existence of the so-called rhythmic after-discharge The appearance of the rhythmic after-discharge Is no more than a result due to the data processing technique. The reasoning for the above fact is fully discussed in the present paper.
Cathode ray irradiation provided by a Van de Graaff generator has been used to sterilize various tissues destined for grafting. An immunological study on the peripheral nerve homotransplantation disclosed a powerful immuno-suppressive effect of the high-voltage electron irradiation. The purpose of the present report is to prove an availability of the cathode ray irradiation to the homologous skull bone transplantion. The irradiated bone grafts were prepared following the method described by Bassett et al. Fresh bones, decalcified bones and the irradiated bones we re comparatively studied for their capacities of the immuno-suppressive effects and the new bone formations in a preliminary experiment, where the homologous bone chips were transplanted to the defects of the skulls in rabbits. A superior bone conduction was provided by the irradiated grafts. New bone formation was recognized along the margins of the grafts 3 months after the homotransplantions of the irradiated canine bones.12 months after operation, bone replacement spread all over the irradiated homografts,25mm in diameter.
A fairly lots of papers concerning phospholipid metabolism in human placenta were available, however, the results were not always consistent. The present paper describes the enzymatic hydrolysis of CI14-labeled rat liver lecithin by human placental tissue. The results obtained are as follows. 1. Phospholipase A1 was first found in human placenta. It is one of phospholipase (EC 18.104.22.168) and catalytically splits the C-1 ester bond of lecithin. 2. The enzyme activity was not affected by treatments of placental tissue with acetone, proteases and detergents and by autolysis and liophylization of the tissue. 3. To find particular relations between phospholipase A1 activity and clinical findings were difficult.
As one of the main pathways for lecithin biosynthesis, the condensation reaction of CDP-choline and diglycerides, Kennedy's pathway, is well known. However, as far as the author is aware, no report is available concerning such pathway in placental tissue. The present paper shows the following results. 1. Both in vivo and in vitro, placenta l tissue of S. D. rat catalized the condensation reaction of C14-labeled CDP-choline and/or C14-choline with diglycer ides and formed C14-labeled lecithin and sphingomyelin, particularily lecithin. 2. Human placental tissue also contained such enzyme activity. 3 The enzymatic activity at the third trimester was higher than that of second one.
The scratch test was conducted on 127 bronchial asthmatic children who visited the Asthma Clinic in the Pediatric Department of the Kansai Medical School. When indicated, the intracutaneous test and the Prausnitz-Kiistner test (hereafter called PK test) were conducted. Comparative studies on the results of these tests revealed the following: 1. The rate of result coincidence between the intracutaneous test and the scratch test was 73.3%. While the positive reactions obtained by the scratch test were 75.6%, those of the intracutaneous reaction were 69.3%, i. e., the scratch test showed a higher positive reaction than the intracutaneous test. 2. The rate of result coincidence between the P-K reaction and the scratch test was as high as 82.7%. This means that the possibility of oversight is greater than six percent, and that a screening test combining both the scratch test and the P-K reaction can lessen this possibility. 3. The rate of result coincidence between the P-K reaction and the intracutaneous test was 70.8%, a rate slightly inferior to that between the scratch test and the P - K reaction. W hen screening is conducted by the intracutaneous test alone, about 20% of the cases may be overlooked. It means that the scratch test is superior to the intracutaneous test as a method of screening. 4. The rate of result coincidence among the P-K test, the scratch test and the intracutaneous tests was 66.2%. The cases which were negative to the scratch test and the intracutaneous test but positive to the P-K reaction were only 2.6%. Therefore when former two tests are negative, it is clinically permissible to decide whether the case is allergen or not, even without conducting a P-K reaction.
The author tried desensitization therapy by using house dust on 145 out of 942 bronchial asthmatic out-patients who visited the hospital during the 5 years from 1965 to 70. The threshold changes in getting positive reactions by the intracutaneous test were studied during the therapentic courses and the following results were obtained: 1. In these 145 cases, the ratio of males to females was 1.95: 1. 2. Eighty-two percent of the children had suffered onset by the time they were five years of age and ninety-five percent by the time they were ten years of age, which means that in most cases of pediatric bronchial asthma, the onset takes place before the tenth year. 3. This desensitization therapy was effective in 71.3% of the cases; it was remarkably effective in 17.8%, fairly effective in 44.2% and only slightly effective in 9.3%. In other words, house dust desensitization therapy is effective in 70% of the asthma patients of this series who showed a positive reaction to house dust. 4. Except in two out of twelve cases, the threshold of allergen concentration showing a positive reaction, as indicated by the cases responding to desensitization the rapy, shifted to a lower dilution rate. 5. Of the 69 non-responsive cas es, only 4 showed a decreased sensitivity to the skirt test, the remainder indicating an increased sensitivity. In such cases it was found that the desensitization therapy was not only inffective but that it even reinforced the original sensitization due to the injection of a llergen. Therefore, the house dust extract solution for injection should be at concentrations sufficiently low to avoid further sensitization.
Photic evoked potentials recorded in the visual cortex and lateral geniculate body to the conditioning electrical stimulation of the limbic system were investigated in 58 rabbits. The conditioning electrical stimulation of the septum, hippocampus and latera l geniculate body with a train of high frequency (100Hz) inhibited cortical photic evoked potentials, whereas that with a train of low frequency (3-5Hz) facilitated them. Cortical photic evoked potentials following the conditioning electrical stimulation of the amygdala with a train of low frequency had tendency to be facilitated. However, the conditioning stimulation with a train of high frequency arbitrarily inhibited and/or facilitated cortical photic evoked potentials. Relationships between the anatom ical designation of the septum and the interactions to the photic evoked potential were analyzed. The conditioning electrical stimulation of medial and lateral nuclei of the septum with a train of high and low frequencies produced attenuation and potentiation of cortical photic potentials respectively, whereas the conditioning stimulation of dorsal nucleus on the septum facilitated cortical evoked potentials irrespective to a train of high and low frequencies. The photic evoked potentials in the la teral geniculate body following the conditioning electrical stimulation of the septum, amygdala and hippocampus had no tendency to be attenuated and/or facilitated irrespective to a train of high and low frequencies. Lesions in the peni- and para-ventricular areas of the hypothalamu s, nucl, reuniens and mammillary body abolished these responses suggesting that these areas are the pathway mediating the projections of the rhinencephalon to the visual cortex via the mesencephalic reticular formation.