In seven acute leukemia patients treated with the transfusion of platelets derived from random donors, the mean interval from the beginning of the platelet transfusion to the anti-HLA antibody detection was found to be 2.7 months. HLA-matching platelet transfusions were effective in all of these seven cases, the corrected platelet increment after 24 hours (CPI 24) being 1.27±0.93. In one of them, HLA-matching platelets instead of platelets derived from random donors were necessary, even after the disappearance of his anti-HLA antibody. In this patient of blood type A having received frequent ABO-mismatching platelet transfusions, the CPI 24 of ABO-identical platelet transfusions was compared with that of incompatible transfusion. The CPI 24 of the latter tended to be lower, and furthermore, ABO-incompatible platelet transfusions caused increment of anti-B alloimmunized antibody titer reaching as high as 1: 128,000, thereafter transfusions of AB or B type platelets being ineffective. In such a situation, ABO-identical platelets seemed to be needed.
White matter lesions of the brain in seven patients with Alzheimer's disease have been studied microscopically and quantitatively. All the seven autopsy cases presented more or less lesions of white matter, which the most important change was an appearance of myelin pallor. Histopathologically, the common findings were the diminution and the degeneration of myelins as well as axons, while the fibrous gliosis was mild. In order to substantiate the microscopic findings me ntioned above, present author has performed a quantitative study in five of the seven cases, in which the number and the diameter of myelinated axons were measured per 2500μ2 and compared with those of the control subjects. As the results, it was revealed that the proportion of the number of myelinated axons in Alzheimer's disease to that in the controls was a ratio of 0.43 and also that the diameters of them were significantly longer in Alzheimer's disease than in the controls. In conclusion, white matter lesion, especially myelin pallor, is found in many cases of Alzheimer's disease and it is considered as one of the significant findings in Alzheimer's disease in the neuropathological view point.
The antitumor effect of PEIT for HCC was examined experimentally and clinically. Histological examination of normal rat liver after an ethanol injection showed coagulative necrosis and hematoidin deposition suggesting ischemic change at the central injected area and circulatory disturbance around the central injected area. Blood flow and vascular structure of VX2 tumor implanted to rabbit liver were examined before and after an ethanol injection. After the injection, significant decrease of tumor blood flow and disappearance of tumor vessels were observed. Histological examination revealed coagulative necrosis of the tumor and thrombosis in the area adjacent to the tumor. PEIT was performed in 37 patients with HCC. The 11 patients with a single tumor of 2 cm or less in diameter treated by PEIT alone did not showed recurrence, and the 3 year survival rate was 74%. Histological examination of specimens obtained surgically or at autopsy was made after PEIT. Coagulative necrosis of the whole tumor including intracapsular invasion and forma tion of thrombi were observed. Hematoidin was also detected in the necrotic tumor tissue. Ethanol injection caused following changes: 1. Coagulative necrosis of tumor cells at the injected site.2. Arterial and portal venous occulusions at the injected site.3. Circulatory failure due to destruction of vascular structure and thrombus formation leading to parenchymal necrosis at the peripheral portion of an ethanol injection.
Platelet-activating factor (PAF,1-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is a ether-linked phospholipid that exhibits a wide range of biological activities, that include stimulation of platelet and neutrophile, vasodilation, increase in vascular permeability, bronchoconstriction and pulmonary hypertension. Such actions have implicated PAF as a potent chemical mediator in anaphylactic or inflammatory processes. Furthermore, in recent studies, it has been elucidated that PAF was not only produced in response to pathological stimulation but also generated in normal animal tissues. But, it remains to be unclear what is the biological role of the endogenous PAF in normal tissues. On the other hand, there have also been many reports on gastric mucosal damage induced by exogenous PAF or protective effect of PAF antagonist in experimental ulcer model. However, these observations suggested that stomach was the target organ for PAF which contributed to pathological state (e. g. inflammation). This study focussed the relation between endogenou s PAF in stomach and the alteration of gastric microenvironment and suggested the following matters. 1) It was elucidated that the endogenous PAF was indeed present in stomach of normal rat. The significantly high level of PAF was detected in the antrum. 2) The endogenous PAF level dynamically altered in quick resp onse to stimuli which affected the gastric microenvironment (e. g. water-immersion stress). 3) It was suggested that PAF might play some role in the formation or deterioration of gastric mucosal lesion induced by water-immersion stress and ethanol, because the specific PAF antagonists prevented such experimental ulcer. 4) It was also suggested that the endogen ous PAF level in stomach was changed in association with physiological alteration, aging. Stomach maintains its homeostasis by many kinds of factors. PAF may play some biological role as one of such factors. Hence, the alteration of endogenous PAF level may cause the imbalance of gastric microenvironment which contributed to the etiopathogenesis in gastric mucosal lesion (especially in the early phase of ulceration), or may be expression of senescence.
Antineoplastic effect of natural killer (NK) cells obtained through the sterile sorting technique on brain tumor cells was evaluated in order to develop a safe adoptive immunotherapy using NK cells. Following preliminary experiments were performed to establish a sterile sorting technique for NK cells using flow cytometer (FCM): 1) Study on the optimal staining condition for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) -labeled monoclonal antibodies, and 2)Study on sterilization for sterile sorting.