yciM, one of the uncharacterized ORFs in Escherichia coli, located next to the DNA replication terminus terA, was found to suppress a suppressor sensitive crp- mutant in 2 copies, one placed in trans in a single copy plasmid and the other on the chromosome in cis, but not in single copy on the chromosome. Moreover, it seems to be lethal to the host in multiple copies, because it could not be subcloned in a multicopy vector. The suppression sensitive crp mutation was leaky and had been credted by the insertion of an 152 element between the crp promoter and its coding region.
Recording field potentials during learning processes of audio-initiated vocalization by electrodes implanted chronically on the surface and at 2.0-3.0 mm depth of the cerebral cortex and analyzing them seem useful for knowing central nervous mechanisms of the vocalization in the monkey. We have been waiting for an opportunity to record the potentials during the motor learning in a short period, because it usually takes a considerable time (3-6 months) for a naive monkey to be trained well for the vocalization. One of three monkeys, which had been fully trained for the vocalization, was found to be unable to perform the vocalization after electrode-implanting operation. We could record the potentials in the monkey during the process of learning the vocalization again. The learning process of the vocalization partly differed from audio-initiated hand movements previously reported, and there was no skill learning in the vocalization. The right cerebellar hemispherectomy eliminated the surface-negative, depth-positive (s-N, d-P) premovement potential recorded before the operation in the left face motor cortices in the three monkeys, and changed vocal tone. Scarce change was seen in reaction times in audio-initiated vocalizations before and after the operation, again differing from audio-initiated hand movements. This suggests that central nervous mechanisms in audio-initiated vocalizations differ from those in audio-initiated hand movements. These nervous mechanisms were discussed in connection with the limbic system.
Muscle Afferent Block (MAB) has been shown to improve clinical symptoms of writer's cramp, cervical dystonia, spastic paraparesis, and oromandibular dystonia. However, this therapy is not yet used to a sufficient extent. In this article, we review our experience with this new treatment The subjects were 11 cases encountered between November,2001 and April,2002, including 4 cases of focal dystonia of an upper limb,3 cases of spastic paralysis of an upper limb,3cases of spastic paraparesis, and 1 case of spasmodic torticollis. All patients exhibited some clinical improvement. Two cases of facial flushing and 3 cases of muscle weakness occurred as side effects. All of them were mild and transient. We conclude that MAB is a useful treatment for dystonia and spasticity with low incidence of side effects.
We have succeeded in treating intractable autoimmune diseases in chimeric resistant MRL/lpr mice by a new bone marrow transplantation (BMT) method consisting of fractionated irradiation (5.5 Gy x2) followed by intra-bone marrow (IBM) injection of whole bone marrow cells (BMCs) from allogeneic normal C 57 BL/6 (B 6) mice [5.5 Gy X2+ IBM]. In MRL/Ipr mice treated with this method, the number of not only donor-derived cells but also donor-derived hemopoietic progenitor cells increased. Furthermore, donor-derived stromal cells were clearly detected in the cultured bone pieces from MRL/lpr mice treated with [5.5 GyX2+IBM]. All the recipients thus treated survived more than one year (60 weeks after birth) and remained free from autoimmune diseases. Autoantibodies decreased to almost normal levels, and abnormal T cells (Thy 1.2+/B 220k+CD 4-/CD 8-) disappeared. These findings clearly indicate that this new strategy (IBM-BMT) creates the appropriate hemopoietic environment for the early recovery of hemopoiesis and donor cell engraftment, resulting in the complete amelioration of intractable autoimmune diseases in chimeric resistant MRL/lpr mice without recourse to immunosuppressants. This strategy would therefore be applicable to human therapy.