An introductory review is made on the development of antibiotics which are available in Japan. Some problems of clinical use of them are discussed on the basis of various related data as follows 1) Selection of antibiotics: It is important to consider their distribution and passage in the body, as well as germs susceptibility. The author indicated that antibiotics distribute and stay in various organs in their own respective manners and that their excretion in the bile is quite characteristic in concentration and into duration. Clinical course of some patients treated with antibiotics is also presented suggesting the principles of therapy. 2) Combined Treatment with antibiotics: Antagonism and synergism of antibiotics are discussed, and the administration of ACTH or cortisone in the antibiotic therapy is also refered to. 3) Development of tolerant strains: A main problem is the development of penicillin resistant staphylococci and streptomycin resistant tuberculous bacilli. Recently, the author and his coworkers have found 33 penicillin resistant (over 10u/ml) strains in 110 staphylococcus strains. Their clinical and experimental studies suggest that the application of penicillinsol may develop the resistance faster than water-soluble penicillin. 4) By-effects of the antibiotic therapy: Adverse effects include direct side effects reactions due to death of germs, disturbance of utilization of vitamins (especially B2)hypersensitivity to antibiotics and replacement of germs in therapy, especially development of moniliasis. Anaphylactic shock caused by penicillin, the most serious accident in antibiotic therapy, has recently happened not rarely in Japan too. The author reports precautions and treatment of these unfortunate accidents in detail.
Since the advent of the sulfonamides and introduction of bacterial chemotherapy, it has been realized that bacteria can easily acquire resistance to these drugs. This fact has come to stimulate an intensive investigation into the phenomenon of drug resistance. It has been shown that many bacteria acquire resistance to various chemotherapeutic drugs and antibiotics. H. Mizuno found that all the epidemic strains of Shigella in part of OSAKA-city,1953-1955, have shown highly increased resistance to the sulfonamides and that some microorganisms lost their sensitibity to antibiotics in respective degrees. E. Inoue isolated a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the blood of a tyhoid-like fever patient with skin ulcers. The strain produces a melanin-like pigment instead of pyocyanin showing resistance twice as strong as other strains against chloramphenicol. The development of drug resistance seems not only due to the species of organisms, but also to chemical properties of drugs. Drugs which have relatively small molecules and drastic actions on bacterial cells, such as phenol or corrosive sublimate, seem more difficult to produce resistant strains than those of large molecules as sulfonamides or penicillin etc.
On the third day after rabbits experimental hepatic disturbances following (1) the ligatur of common bile duct, (2) manipulating destruction of hepatic tissue, (3) oral adminisof CCl4, and (4) oral administration of chloroform, glucose is intravenously admininistered resulting in hyperglycemia simultaneously V. B2 complex consisting of 3 agents is administered, either three agents individually or in a whole mixture. The results obtained are as follows. (1) In the (1) group, hyperglycemia is clearly intensified following all administrations. (2) In the (2) group, hyperglycemia is clearly diminished following all administrations. (3) In the (3) group, hyperglycemia is markedly diminished in 90 minutes. following administration of VB2. (4) In the (4) group, hyperglycemia is diminished following administration of VB2. (5) It is assumed that the diminution is due to the inprovement of dysfunction of carbohydrate metabolism in the impaired hepatic tissues following administration of V. B2complex.
2.4-D, a herbicidal imported from U. S. A., is said to be non-poisonous. However, the authors recently experienced a case of acute intoxication with 2.4-D after its oral intake. The patient is 24 year old single woman. She took about 15g. of 2.4-D as dissolved in water. Soon her candition became serious and she was admitted to this hospital. She was rescued from critical condition by non-specfic treatment and discharged from hospital after about one month. Principal symptoms and findings were: (1) pain in the throat, burning sensation behind the sternum and in the epigastrium, abdominal pain, tenderness of the upper abdomen and around the navel, positive Mendel sign (2) positive occult blood in the feces and gastric contents, (3) proteinuria with erythrocytes and leukocytes in the urine, pain in the bladder region after miction, (4) headache, dizziness, Kernig's sign, stiff neck, (5) chest-pain, persistent small bubbling rales, and fever, (6) low blood pressure. Observed symptoms and findings suggest that 2.4-D has poisonous effect on various systems, gastrointestinal, urinary, central nervous, respiratory, and circulatory. The authors then carried out histo-pathological experiment on animals, record of which will be presented in forthcoming communications.
Studies are made on the in vitro lysis of tuberculous patients' leucocytes due to tuberculin, which has been introduced by Favour and others. Tuberculin diluted to 1: 480 is added to normal and tuberculous patients' leucocyte suspensions to have the respective leucocyte numbers counted. The results obtained are as follows 1) Tuberculous patients' leucocytes show rapid cytolysis in vitro following the addition of tuberculin. 2) The cytolysis is not so marked in six normal subjects as in the tuberculous. 3) Neutrophils play a main role in the leucocytolysis, sometimes lymphocytolysis is demonstrated. 4) Severe tuberculous cases show more marked leucocytolysis than the other cases observed.
From a standpoint of excitation and its direction, it is not open to question that all livingsystems can be classified into three fundamental systems as,“Typical Isodromical System”,“Atypical Isodromical System” and“Heterodromical System” The present study has been carried out for verifying 1) Heterodromical System and 2)Typical Isodromical System. Experimental Material: - 1) Winter frog and witer toad hearts were employed whose atrioventricular connection was maintained only by septa. 2) Summer toad hearts were employed whose atrioventricular connection was maintained only by the lateral part. Method: - The same as Report I. Result: - It was evidenced that“Heterodromical System” and“Typical Isodromical System”were present for all livingsystems.
From a standpoint of conduction of excitation and its direction, the livingsystems can be classified into three fundamental conduction systems of excitation (“Typical Isodromical System”, “Atypical Isodromical System” and “Heterodromical System”). The author verified in the previous report that this fundamental conduction systems of excitation were demonstrated in the conduction of excitation between the atrium and ventricle. In this paper, it has been verified on the neuromuscular junction whether the above fact is applicable to the livingsystems besides the atrioventricvlar aspect. Method: - Kiihne's M. Sartorius method was followed. Result: - The conduction of excitation upon the neuromuscular junction showed an irreciprocal conduction of excitation under the normal condition, but showed a reciprocal condition (e. g. with Adrenaline-Ringer's solution). The latter conduction changed into an irreciprocal conduction following a change in the condition (e. g. was used instead of Adrenaline-Ringer's solution Ergotoxine-Ringer's solution). It was verified that the three fundamental condition systems of excitation were reversible serially. The results were the same with conduction of excitation in which a eptum was the only bridge between the atrium and ventricle. Accordingly the results do not agree with the so far accepted maintance that the conduction upon the neuromuscular junction is irreciprocal.
Twenty four strains of Coli group bacilli and 5 strains of Proteus bacilli which has been isolated from the feces of dysenteric patients and parragglutinated with antisera of Shigella groups are serologically. studied The results are as follows: All strains are paraagglutinated by rabbit antiserum (titer 1: 5120) of Komagome B3strain which belongs to Shigella 2a (titer 1: 20∼2560). One strain (Kawaguchi) is agglutinated only by the antiserum of D group Shigella (S. Sonnei). About half of these strains are not influenced by heat. Some of these strains, lose their agglutinability, while others show an increase in agglutination titer. When 2 of these strains were selected at random and subcultured every day for about a year, there developed no remarkable changes in their agglutinability. This finding supports to assume that agglutinative nature is primarily existent in the bacterial body and that the observed agglutination is different from so-called paraagglutination. These strains can be classified into the following 5 groups on the basis of the results of agglutination test to the specific dysenteric sera: Group 1, (1 strain) aggultinated to all type- and group-specific sera of Shigella B group. Group 2, (9 strains) is not agglutinated with all dysenteric sera exept the antiserum of Komagome B3. Group 3, (7 strains) agglutinated to mixed antiserum of Shigella. Group 4, (7 strains) show agglutination to type- and group-specific sera in a wide range. Group 5, (6 strains) show agglutination in pather a limited range. Rabbit sera, are produced according to the standard method respectively for Kawaguchi strain (Coli, Intermedius type) which belongs to the 5th group and Okagawa strain which is one of Proteus and belongs to the 3rd group. The results of absorption test indicate that the antigen of the paraagglutinable strains and that of Shigella groups are not identical. The antigen of Coli group strains is distinctly different in somatic agglutination from that of Shigella.
Drug resistance or drug sensitivity was examined on Shigella bacteria picked from each colony grown on Endo-agar plates which had been inoculated from 15 dysenteric patients specimens collected in summer,1955. The drugs used in this experiment were Aureomycin, Chloramphenicol, Terramycin, Dihydrostreptomycin and Achromycin. Although most Shigella strains isolated from non-treated patients possess a similar sensitivity to the antibiotics, those strains of the patients who had been previously administered with any antibiotic, or sulfonamide showed markedly varying sensitivity. The resistance of Shigalla bacteria is irrespective of its type, group and severity of symptoms. Most strains isolated from patients under treatment, especially those from patient of 3days treatment showed irregurality of sensitiveness, with a trend of increase in resistance. The increase in the resistan ce was observed most markedly in those drugs which had been used for the present treatment.
From late autum to early winter many infants of the weaning period are affected by an intestinal hazard, which is characterized with vomiting and watery, acholic stools. To date this disease, designated“Pseudocholera infantum”by Ito (1901), has been studied by many authors, especially from the etiologic respect. This paper covers the clinical studies of 33 cases observed in our clinic during three months from October to Descember in 1955. These cases were limitted in 7-15 months old and there was no marked sex difference in the number of incidence. In two apartment houses and one locality the epidemic outbreak was observed. No new finding was obtained in addition to the so far reported clinical symptoms. In our cases the initial symptoms were diarrhea (21 cases), vomiting (5 cases), and fever (3 cases). Clinical diagnosis was made on characteristic white stools, the frequency of which was generally limited 4-6 times daily in many cases. The stools showed low pH value 5.6-6.9, averaging 6.0. Catarrhal symptoms of the upper respiratory tract were also obserued in a high percentage (78%) and a half of the cases had fever. The blood picture showed no significant change, but an increase in“Virocyte”(5% on an average). Prognosis was always favorable and all patients recovered within 7 days. In bacteriological studies of stools pathogenetic B. coli were found in cases (O55, O26, O126). Clinically this disease is assumd infectious, probably viral.