Based on the results of recent excavations, the Jomon period seemed to be an age of remarkable cultural wealth not only in archaeological terms, but also when compared with contemporary societies. However, should we not also examine the Jomon people from the viewpoint of physical health as well? It is thought that the main foods of Jomon people were botanical. However, from the results of modern medicine, particularly gerontology, it can not necessarily be said that botanical foods alone are enough to maintain a healthy body. Similarly, it is now understood that the intake of animal proteins and fats are indispensable for maintenance of health and longevity in humans in the modern period. Through this paper I will examine the health of the Jomon people using the results of recent medical studies, focusing particularly on geriatric epidemiology. At the same time, from the standpoint of “symbiosis”, I challenge us to learn how we can use what we have learned about the health of the Jomon in understanding modern health.