Japan’s declining birthrate and aging population led to the increased employment of female seafarers. Yet, the percentage of female seafarers is still low. To further understand this context, a survey about the employment of female seafarers was conducted at 23 Japanese shipping companies. Responses revealed that these companies were reluctant to hire females because of the following concerns: sexual harassment, female employees’ tendency to resign due to childbirth and childcare, as well as capital investment.
We propose the following solutions to promote female employment. The first is the implementation of the Revised Female’s Participation Promotion Act which includes certification and provision of tax reductions to companies with policies implementing of female participation. The second is the reemployment and continued employment of experienced female seafarers as well as the promotion of reemploying females in related fields such as faculty members at training organizations, research positions, and operators of maneuvering simulators. This requires continuous employment and remote work during childcare and transitioning to work environments conducive to raising children as part of a family, the local community, and the society as a whole.
The near miss reports are utilized for preventing accidents and incidents in various industrial fields. The authors analyze both actual near misses and hypothetilcal ones which crew expected to likely occur.
First, the data of 21,118 reports from Japanese domestic tankers are categorized into 21 risk factors based on 4M(Man, Machine, Media and Management) by text mining technique.
Secondly, the data is analysed by Principal Component Analysis ; it is shown that the degree of nature risk on tanker in each risk factor is corresponding to the first principal component and sensitivity against risk is corresponding to the second one. It is clarified that these two conponents closely relate to accidents and incidents ; they can be used as an index of factors behind accidents and incidents.
Furthermore, it is shown that there is a blind spot in near miss reports, not all actual unsafe event is reported, because poor sensitivity against risk cannot detect one.
This study proposes learning outcomes for unskilled/unexperienced marine engineers in ERM training. The purpose of this proposition is twofold. One is to enable unskilled/unexperienced marine engineers to practice ERM more concretely on the job, and the other is to enable instructors to teach and evaluate ERM more appropriately. In order to propose learning outcomes, the authors set specific behavioral goals for unskilled/unexperienced marine engineers to achieve by analyzing the conversations and behaviors of the participants based on our past ERM training using an engine-room simulator. As a result, the learning outcomes of ERM training for unskilled/unexperienced marine engineers were summarized into five.
The present study shows some examples of formulaic language of Maritime English (three-word sequences) and consider second language acquisition processes and teaching methods of these formulaic sequences. The examples of formulaic sequences are extracted from IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases and compared to those in Spoken BNC 2014, a large corpus of spoken British English, accordingly. Acquisition processes of the formulaic sequences are analyzed, based on Usage-Based Approach, which is also the basis of teaching methods proposed in this study.