Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Surgical resection is the standard treatment for primary lung cancer. However, the critical morbidity after surgical resection, especially in patients with octogenarian, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or pulmonary fibrosis, is problematic. In chest surgery, minimal invasiveness, especially video-assisted thoracic surgery and a less radical resection is an important topic. Perioperative respiratory rehabilitation is useful for preventing postoperative complications. We discuss about recent topics of treatment in patients with lung cancer.