Objectives Some previous studies reported that the levels of a low-density lipoprotein receptor relative with 11 ligand-binding repeats (LR11) was a prognostic marker in some malignant tumors; however, whether LR11 is related to survival in patients with esophageal cancer remains unclear.
Methods In this study, we measured LR11 in the preoperative serum of 46 patients of esophageal cancer who undergoing surgery using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method with anti-LR11 monoclonal antibodies. We investigated the correlation between the level of LR11 and survival of patients with esophageal cancer. Clinicopathological data were retrospectively retrieved from our institution’s database.
Results The patients were divided into two groups (low LR11 and high LR11) based on the level of LR11. There was no statistical difference in clinicopathological factors between these two groups. The low LR11 group had a significantly longer overall survival than the high LR11 group.
Conclusions LR11 can be measured with a relatively simple ELISA and is potentially a new prognostic marker for esophageal cancer.
Objectives Since esophageal carcinoma progresses asymptomatically, for many patients the disease is already advanced at the time of diagnosis. The main methods that are currently used to diagnose esophageal carcinoma are upper gastrointestinal radiographic contrast examinations and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, but early discovery of this disease remains difficult. There is a need to develop a diagnostic method using biomarkers that is non-invasive while both highly sensitive and specific.
Materials and Methods Exhaled breath was collected from 17 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), as well as 9 control subjects without history of any cancer. For each fasting subject, 1L of exhaled breath was collected in a gas sampling bag. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were then extracted from each sample using Solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) fibers and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).
Results Levels of acetonitrile, acetic acid, acetone, and 2-butanone in exhaled breath were significantly higher in the patient group than in the control group (p = 0.0037, 0.0024, 0.0024 and 0.0037, respectively). ROC curves were drawn for these 4 VOCs, and the results for the area-under-the-curve (AUC) indicated that ESCC patients can be identified with a high probability of 0.93.
Conclusion We found distinctive VOCs in exhaled breath of ESCC patients. These VOCs have a potential as new clinical biomarkers for ESCC. The measurement of VOCs in exhaled breath may be a useful, non-invasive method for diagnosis of ESCC.
I enrolled in the Juntendo University Urological Course in 1982 and worked at Juntendo for 40 years until I retired in 2022. The transition of Urology had been slow until recent years. In the last 20-30 years, Urological practice has made significant progress. I will look back on the 40 years of Juntendo University and describe it in this article. In particular, the transition and breakthrough in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer were remarkable. This point will be described mainly based on the experience at Juntendo Nerima Hospital.
Objectives Postoperative venous thromboembolism is an important peri-operative complication associated with total hip arthroplasty (THA). In particular, early detection of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is important for the prevention of pulmonary embolism (PE). However, the methods and timing of examinations for DVT detection differ among the facilities. This study aimed to clarify the time, site, and frequency of DVT after THA.
Materials and Methods Background characteristics including age, sex, body mass index, diagnosis, operation type, operation time, and anesthesia type were investigated in 348 patients who underwent THA at our hospital between April 2017 and April 2019. Blood tests were performed preoperatively and on postoperative days (POD) 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21. Simultaneously, vascular ultrasonography was performed to investigate the time and site of thrombus occurrence before and after the surgery.
Results DVT was observed in 27.2% of the patients on POD 21. The DVT-positive ratio was 9.4% (6/64) in males and 31.3% (89/284) in females. There was a significant difference between the groups (p = 0.0002). Patients in the DVT-positive group were significantly older than those in the DVT-negative group (73.0 ± 7.9 years vs. 63.3 ± 11.2 years, p = 0.0041). DVT mainly occurred in the soleal vein (74.7%). However, there was no significant difference between the operated and non-operated sides. In the DVT-positive group, thrombus occurred in 13.3% of preoperative cases, 20.0% on POD 0, 46.7% on POD 1, 13.3% on POD 3, 6.7% on POD 7, and 0% on POD 14 and 21.
Conclusions Vascular ultrasonography showed that thrombus occurred most frequently in the soleal vein. Thrombus occurred in 66.6% of DVT-positive patients by POD 1, indicating that thrombus appeared very early after surgery. All thrombus cases were formed by POD 7.
Objectives The aim of this study was to measure the diaphragm volume using three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) and verify its validity.
Design This was a retrospective study of existing samples.
Methods Participants comprised five male patients, aged 65-70 years, who underwent preoperative chest CT (with a slice thickness of 0.5 mm) before coronary artery bypass surgery. The diaphragm was selectively extracted using a workstation to reconstruct a stereoscopic image, and the total muscle volume was measured. To confirm the accuracy and reproducibility of diaphragm muscle volume measurements on CT, all cases were measured three times by two observers, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and interobserver correlations were determined.
Results Observers #1 and #2 reported an average diaphragm volume of 256.7±33 cm3 and 259.3±36 cm3, respectively. The ICC analyses yielded Cronbach’s alphas of 0.992 and 0.981 from both observers, and the interobserver correlation was 0.991. The ICC of a single measurement and the average measurement was 0.984 (95% confidence interval: 0.998-0.884) and 0.992 (95% confidence interval: 0.999-0.939), respectively.
Conclusions To our knowledge, this study is the first to standardize the method for measuring the total diaphragm volume and examine the reproducibility and validity of the new method. The diaphragm could be selectively extracted and reconstructed. Measurement of the total diaphragm muscle volume using a workstation to reconstruct a stereoscopic image is feasible and highly reproducible. This technique can be reliably employed to evaluate diaphragm volume, thickness, and morphology.
Introduction Early-onset dementia is fast-progressing compared with late-onset dementia, with major clinical characteristics including prominent focal cerebral symptoms. Given its economic and psychological implications, proper diagnosis and treatment at an early stage is essential. In the present study, the authors conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the usefulness of various numerical indices (including CIScore calculated by eZIS, cerebral blood flow SPECT analysis software) in the differential diagnosis of early-onset dementia.
Materials and Methods This study involved patients with early-onset and mild dementia who were receiving ambulatory care at our outpatient department specializing in Alzheimer’s disease (14 MCI patients, 16 AD patients, and 16 probable/possible DLB patients). ROC analysis was performed for each SVA numerical index calculated by eZIS to calculate AUC. For the AD and DLB groups, correlation between the CIScore and MMSE was assessed.
Results When SVA-A (severity) was used to differentiate AD from MCI and DLB from MCI, the respective AUC values were 0.960 and 0.911. When CIScore was used to differentiate AD from DLB (threshold value: 0.225), the obtained AUC value was 0.941, and the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were 90.6%, 87.5%, and 93.7%, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between the MMSE and CIScore scores in these disease groups.
Conclusion The results of this study have suggested that the SVA-A is a useful index for evaluating the conversion from MCI to either early-onset AD or DLB, and that the CIScore is useful for differentiating AD from DLB in both late-onset and early-onset dementia cases.
Objectives Anastomotic complications after colorectal surgery are one of the most serious outcomes. To address this issue, this study used the newly developed bioabsorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheet to assess its usefulness and safety using two approaches of double stapling technique (DST) after laparoscopic anterior resection (AR) in pig models.
Methods Rectal intratissue pressure was assessed after DST anastomosis in two groups, i.e., with (PGA group) or without PGA sheet (nonPGA group), which was sandwiched between the anastomosis in the first approach. In the second approach, after laparoscopic DST anastomosis with PGA sheet attached at anvil side, the clinical short-term outcomes within 1 week and histological findings at 1 week after the surgery were evaluated.
Results Assessment of rectal intratissue pressure showed a mean pressure of 9.28 kPa in the PGA group versus 5.78 kPa in the nonPGA group (p = 0.39). The results of clinical short-term outcomes revealed that there were no anastomotic complications. The results of histological findings in anastomotic bowel tissues with PGA sheet were not significantly different from those of the control case.
Conclusions The bioabsorbable PGA sheet can be used for colorectal DST anastomosis in animal models and may be a valuable tool for this procedure.
Background Postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum (PPG) is a rare inflammatory skin disease of unknown etiology characterized by blistering and ulcerative lesions in postoperative wounds. Untreated pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is potentially life-threatening; therefore, immediate and appropriate treatment is essential. Although PPG and surgical site infection (SSI) present similar clinical findings, they should be differentiated because of their conflicting treatment modalities.
Case presentation An 82-year-old man with comorbidities of pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and diabetes underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. On postoperative day 6, fever exceeding 39°C, port wound redness, and pain was observed. Laboratory tests revealed severe inflammatory reactions: white blood cell, 42,800/μL and C-reactive protein, 30.2 mg/mL. The patient was diagnosed with SSI and treatment with antibiotics and drainage was started; however, his general and wound conditions also worsened. Therefore, he was diagnosed with PG because painful skin findings were exacerbated by external stimuli and no significant bacteria were detected in the culture test. Treatment with oral prednisolone was started, which significantly improved his skin and inflammatory conditions.
Conclusion We managed a rare case of PPG that occurred in a port wound after laparoscopic gastrectomy. If atypical clinical findings of postoperative SSI are observed, general surgeons should recognize and consider PPG as a differential diagnosis.