Objective Previous studies suggest that there are students who obtain high scores on term tests but not on external achievement tests (external tests, hereafter) and that differential performances across term and external tests are affected by students’ learning strategies, motivation for learning, and test belief (i.e., the beliefs a test taker has about a test). This study examined (a) to what extent students perform well only on term tests and (b) how differences in scores between term and external tests are related to motivation for learning and test belief.
Methods and Materials We asked 134 first-year medical students at Juntendo University to complete two questionnaires. We inquired about their motivation for learning and test belief and about whether they obtained higher scores on term tests or external tests, in general across all subjects, and specifically on each of five subjects: Japanese, English, math, science, and social studies.
Results The results suggest that 41% of students gained high scores on term tests only when students gave a general response without regard to any specific subject, with 37–59% across the five subjects. Further, we did not find any differences between different groups in relation to motivation and test belief.
Conclusions The results suggest the importance of investigating differences between term and external test scores and the factors behind them.
Objective Enhancing communication skills is important for university students in Japan. However, a practical evidence-based approach cannot be employed for analyzing assertiveness among university students due to lack of evidence. This study examines the relationship between the experience of sports and physical activity (PA) at different developmental stages and the level of assertiveness among university students.
Methods 756 university students (235 males and 521 females) in Japan participated in this study. Experience of sports and PA levels were evaluated based on the items of sports carrier profile and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form. Assertiveness was assessed using the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule.
Results In the logistic regression, participation in sports at middle or high competitive levels in the elementary school stage was associated with assertiveness in university students (inexperience versus middle competitive levels: adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.02-2.81, inexperience versus high competitive levels: AOR 2.29, 95% confidence interval 1.11-4.71). Moderate or vigorous PA was associated with assertiveness in university students (inactive versus moderate PA with over 720 min/wk: AOR 1.97, 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.72, inactive versus vigorous PA within 360.0-739.9 min/wk: AOR 2.19, 95% confidence interval 1.31-3.68).
Conclusions Promotion of participation in youth sports and ensuring sufficient PA levels in campus life can enhance assertiveness in university students.
Objective To investigate the effects of head position on scapular orientation in a posture of simulated rugby tackling.
Design Laboratory experimental study.
Methods Twenty-nine healthy young men lay on the edge of a wooden rigid bed in the prone position with their dominant arm free. The experimental arm movement task was conducted in four head positions (2 neck bending x 2 neck rotation) with maximum ranges of direction: the dominant arm was rotated from an intermediate position to maximum external rotation at 90° shoulder abduction with 90° elbow flexion while maintaining each neck position. During the tasks, dynamic scapular orientations were measured with an electromagnetic sensor system.
Results In total, 348 experimental trials were included in the analyses. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated that the direction of neck bending and the side of neck rotation relative to the arm movement significantly affected the scapular orientation. The scapular tilting angle was significant during neck rotation ipsilateral to the arm movement (mean difference, 11°). The scapular upward rotation angle was higher during neck rotation contralateral than ipsilateral rotation to the arm movement (mean difference, 2.5°) regardless of the neck bending position. The scapular external rotation angle was significant during neck rotation ipsilateral to the arm movement (mean difference, 5.5°).
Conclusions The neck position affects the scapular orientation in the prone position. Neck flexion with rotation contralateral to the arm movement represents an anteriorly tilted and internally rotated scapula orientation, which may increase the risk of shoulder injury such as dislocation.
Objective Early detection is the key to treatment outcome in colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) as a useful diagnostic marker for early-stage CRC.
Materials We selected 7 cases without lymph node metastasis or any typical risk factors from 52 stage II CRC cases. Blood sampled before and after surgery, and cancer and normal tissue samples of the selected cases were supplied. Aside from this, a public data set of miRNA expression in the serum of patients with CRC and healthy controls obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus National Center for Biotechnology Information (GSE40247) was used.
Methods A microarray analysis was conducted using the total RNA extracted from the serum in 4 cases. The expression levels of RNAs in the bloods of remaining 3 cases and cancer and normal tissues of all the 7 cases were evaluated using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Based on the public data, the expression level of miRNAs in the serum of patients with CRC was compared with those of healthy controls (HC).
Results miR-15b-3p and miR-339-5p were significantly decreased after the surgery (n=4, p<0.05). Higher expression in preoperative blood was verified for both miR15b-3p (p=0.040) and miR-339-5p (p=0.046) (n=3). The cancer tissue-specific higher expression was detected for miR-15b-3p (p=0.0490) but not for miR339-5p (p=0.095). In the public data, the expression levels of miR-15b-3p in stages I, II and IIIa CRC patients were higher than those in HC (p=0.041, 0.036, and 0.014, respectively). The expression levels of miR-339-5p were not different among CRC and HC sera (p>0.05).
Conclusions miR-15b-3p may be a useful diagnostic marker for early-stage CRC.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is genodermatosis, which is one of syndromic oculocutaneous albinism (OCA). OCA categorizes 9 genes, and patients with mutations in HPS1 gene have greater likelihood of pulmonary fibrosis and granulomatous colitis for their 40s.
A 49-year-old man was referred to our hospital as his chest CT image indicated abnormal shadow for his age. At birth, he had white skin, blond hair, and blue iris. And he had not visual power. He was also easy to bleed and had disfunction of platelet. Skin biopsy and genetic test indicated he was diagnosed as HPS definitely and had mutations in HPS1 variation on DNA (c.398+5 G>A, homozygote), which is already known. After 4 months from his hospitalization, his respiratory function became worsen. Otherwise he took pirfenidone, pulmonary fibrosis progressed and he died of dyspnea.
In our university, 39 patients had diagnosed as OCA during past 20 years. Only 5 patients were conducted gene analysis. 3 patients were OCA1B, and 2 patients were HPS1. In OCA patients, there are some gene mutations which onset serious complications. Early detection by gene test and early treatment is important.
Eighty percent of all visual impairment can be prevented or cured by considering the two leading causes of visual impairment in the world, i.e., uncorrected refractive error and cataract. Cataracts cause vision loss owing to clouding of the lens, with age being the greatest risk factor. Cataract surgery can greatly improve vision and is highly effective. It is the most commonly performed surgery in developed countries. Uncorrected refractive error can be resolved simply by wearing proper eyeglasses or contact lenses. Although traditionally considered a problem in developing countries, uncorrected refractive error is now known to be more common among older people in developed countries. Glaucoma is the most important cause of visual impairment in Japan, accounting for 29% of all cases. Compared with other eye diseases of the visually impaired population, glaucoma is the only one that has been increasing both in number and percentage.