Objective: Stent fracture is a risk factor for stroke. It has not been fully elucidated whether stent-in-stent procedures can effectively treat stent fractures.
Case Presentation: An 80-year-old man underwent carotid artery stenting (CAS) with an open-cell stent to treat asymptomatic right internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. Type III stent fracture occurred during CAS. Six months later, in-stent stenosis progressed on DSA. Repeat CAS with a closed-cell stent was performed. CT showed expansion of the narrowed lumen. The patient remained stroke-free and carotid artery restenosis did not occur for 3 years postoperatively.
Conclusion: Repeat CAS with a closed-cell stent is a viable treatment option for stent fracture.
Objective: Endovascular coil embolization for anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysms is associated with high total and near-total occlusion rates, but the complication rate is high. The development of newer endovascular technologies may improve the clinical outcomes. This study investigated the status of endovascular treatment of ACoA and ACA aneurysms by comparing our results with past reports.
Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2018, we investigated 50 patients who were followed for 12 months or longer to clarify the outcomes of coil embolization. The outcomes of embolization were evaluated using time-of-flight MRA. The safety was evaluated based on procedure-related complications that affected clinical outcomes.
Results: Initial assessments demonstrated complete obliteration in 84% (42 of 50 patients) and a residual neck in 14% (7 of 50 patients). Procedure-related complications developed in 12% (6 of 50 patients). The procedure-related morbidity rate was 2% (1 of 50 patients) and there was no procedure-related death. Recanalization was noted in 14% (7 of 50 patients, median follow-up period, 57 months). The recanalized aneurysms were significantly smaller than the stable aneurysms in maximum size (4.3 mm vs. 5.8 mm; p = 0.017) and height (3.7 mm vs. 4.3 mm; p = 0.035).
Conclusion: We demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of endovascular coil embolization for ACoA and ACA aneurysms. The small size of aneurysms may be related to recanalization.
Objective: To examine the effectiveness of a newly developed emergency room (ER) protocol to treat patients with stroke and control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 by evaluating the door-to-picture time.
Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 126 patients who were transported to our ER by ambulance with suspected stroke between April 15 and October 31, 2020 (study group). A risk judgment system named the COVID level was introduced to classify the risk of infection as follows: level 0, no infection; I, infection unlikely; II, possible; III, probable; and IV, definite. Patients with COVID levels 0, I, or II and a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score >10 were placed in a normal ER (nER) without atmospheric pressure control; the medical staff wore standard personal protective equipment (PPE) in such cases. Patients with COVID level II, III, or IV, and a GCS score of ≤10 were assigned to the negative pressure ER (NPER); the medical staff wore enhanced PPE for these cases. The validity of the protocol was assessed. The door-to-picture time of the study group was compared with that of 114 control patients who were transported with suspected stroke during the same period in 2019 (control group). The difference in the time for CT and MRI between the two groups was also compared. In the study group, the time spent in the nER and NPER was evaluated.
Results: In all, 118 patients (93.7%) were classified as level I, 6 (4.8%) as level II, and 2 (1.6%) as level III. Only five patients (4.0%) were treated with NPER. Polymerase chain reaction tests were performed on 118 out of 126 patients (93.7%) and were negative. No significant differences were observed in age, sex, neurological severity, modalities of diagnostic imaging, and diagnosis compared with the control group. The median door-to-picture time was 18 (11–27.8) min in the study group and 15 (10–25) min in the control group (p = 0.08). No delay was found on CT (15 [10–21] vs. 14 [9–21] min, p = 0.24). In contrast, there was an 8-min delay for MRI (30 [21.8–50] vs. 22 [14–30] min, p = 0.01). The median door-to-picture time was 29 min longer in patients treated with NPER than in those treated with nER, although the difference was not significant due to the small number of patients (47 [27–57] vs. 18 [11–26] min, p = 0.07).
Conclusion: Our protocol could optimize the use of medical resources with only a 3-min delay in the door-to-picture time in an area without explosive outbreak. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of the protocol in preventing infection could not be verified because of the low incidence of COVID-19. When developing and modifying an institutional protocol, recognizing the outbreak status surrounding each institution is important.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SAR-CoV-2), which appeared at the end of 2019 and has spread rapidly worldwide. In Japan, the increasing number of people infected with SAR-CoV-2 is also a cause of concern for physicians managing stroke patients. From the perspective of viral transmission in the hospital, stroke physicians must determine whether patients who have been transported by emergency have confirmed or suspected COVID-19. For this reason, stroke physicians must also understand about the characteristics and accuracy of the test for COVID-19 diagnosis. This article describes the sensitivity of the clinical symptoms, imaging investigations such as chest radiography and chest CT, and accuracy of nucleic-acid amplification tests and antigen tests used in the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, it should be noted that the accuracy of specimen tests may change depending on the collection site, timing, and method, because positive results in these tested specimens depend on the viral loads. In performing medical treatment for stroke, high accuracy and rapid inspection for COVID-19 is desired, but this is not currently available. For acute stroke treatment, such as thrombectomy, we recommend that these emergency patients, who are suspected of COVID-19 by clinical symptoms and image investigations, should be treated with implementation of strict infection control against droplets, contact, and airborne transmission until the most sensitive polymerase chain reaction test result is confirmed as negative.
Objective: We report a case of embolic occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) in which a giant thrombus was retrieved using the parallel stent retriever technique.
Case presentation: An 84-year-old woman without anticoagulant therapy despite a history of cardioembolic stroke presented to our hospital because of left hemiparesis after developing sudden vision loss in her right eye. Emergency angiography revealed a giant thrombus in the right CCA. After arresting flow in the CCA using a balloon-guided catheter (BGC), we deployed two stent retrievers in parallel from the internal carotid artery to the CCA, and slowly retrieved them simultaneously under manual aspiration through the BGC. As a result, complete recanalization was achieved.
Conclusion: Thrombi causing acute embolic occlusion of the CCA are often too large to be completely retrieved using conventional thrombectomy techniques. The parallel stent retriever technique may be effective in such cases.
Objective: Coil compaction after aneurysm embolization is one of the major issues associated with aneurysm recurrence. On the presumption that pulsatile stress to the aneurysm is responsible for coil compaction, we developed an experimental model in vitro to visualize the mechanical stresses exerted by blood pressure and pulse and their relation to coil compaction.
Methods: A closed-type non-circulation system was developed by installing a syringe that generated pressure at one end of a tube, along with a spherical aneurysm made of silicone and a pressure sensor in the bifurcated end. We installed a fixed-pressure model under a steady pressure of 300 mmHg while the pressure-fluctuation model simulated the pressure variations using a plunger (in a syringe) by using a motor that applied pulsatile stress in the range of 50 mmHg for a 10-ms cycle. We devised four types of aneurysms with different depths and the same coil length. After coil packing, the aneurysms were observed for 3 days (the observation period in the pressure-fluctuation model corresponded to approximately 300 days in real time). The distance from the datum point to the observable coil loops was determined as the initial position, and the temporal change in the distance from that position was measured.
Results: In the fixed-pressure model, the average distance of coil movement was very small (less than ±0.1 mm). In the pressure-fluctuation model, the movement of coils was observed to be significant for the two longest depths (0.11 and 0.14 mm). The maximal dynamic change in coil movement was observed on the second day. The range of movement was observed to decrease thereafter.
Conclusion: Our experimental study enabled the observation of coil movement within a short duration. It examined coil compaction by applying pulsed pressure to the coils at high speeds. Consequently, a shift of the coil loops inside the incompletely occluded aneurysms was detected on applying a pulsed pressure.
Objective: The authors describe a case of the so-called dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) around the posterior condylar canal (PCC).
Case Presentation: A 71-year-old woman presented with pulse-synchronous bruit on the left side. Conventional DSA demonstrated the following: There were many feeders, including the ascending pharyngeal artery (APA), the occipital artery (OA), and the vertebral artery (VA), to the DAVF around the PCC. Shunt flow from the posterior condylar vein (PCV) drained the suboccipital cavernous sinus (SCS) and sigmoid sinus (SS), and there was venous reflux into the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS). The patient was diagnosed with PCC DAVF and underwent transvenous embolization (TVE) with coils. Intraoperative 3D-rotational angiography (RA) and axially reconstructed images revealed an osseous shunt within the occipital bone adjacent to the PCC. The arteriovenous (AV) shunt and other symptoms disappeared after occluding the drainage route from the osseous shunt to the PCV.
Conclusion: There are only three previous reports of PCC DAVF, being rare. However, no report clearly described the shunt point of PCC DAVF. 3D-RA and axially reconstructed images were useful to find and treat the shunt point.
Objective: Carotid artery stenting (CAS) using the stent-in-stent technique was reported to prevent intraprocedural plaque protrusion (PP) in patients with carotid artery stenosis with unstable plaque. We report a case of intraoperative PP after CAS despite the use of stent-in-stent technique.
Case Presentation: A 63-year-old man presented with rapid progression of right carotid artery stenosis with unstable plaque during follow-up and was admitted to undergo CAS. Under local anesthesia with Mo.Ma Ultra and FilterWire EZ protection, CAS was performed using the stent-in-stent technique. The first 8 mm × 29 mm Carotid Wallstent (CWS) was placed. The second CWS (6 mm × 22 mm) was placed in a stent-in-stent manner to match the stenotic lesion, and conservative postdilation was performed. Then the third CWS (6 mm × 22 mm) was added due to the presence of PP on intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS). No postoperative neurological abnormalities were found, and no new high-signal areas were observed on diffusion-weighted MRI the day after surgery. The patient was discharged without postoperative complications. No stroke and restenosis were observed at 3 months after CAS.
Conclusion: PP can occur even with stent-in-stent technique, suggesting the importance of diagnosis by IVUS.
Objective: Mechanical thrombectomy enables histopathological examination of clots in patients who have suffered acute ischemic strokes. Many studies have described about the relationship between the histopathological compositions of retrieved thrombi and imaging findings, clinical outcomes, and stroke etiology without consensus. In this study, we examined the histological composition of thrombi according to their retrieval site and methods.
Methods: We divided retrieved clots into three parts (those retrieved from the proximal and distal parts of the stent retriever, and those aspirated through the guiding catheter) and then histopathologically analyzed their compositions by measuring the area occupied by red blood cells (RBCs), fibrin/platelets (F/Ps), and white blood cells (WBCs).
Results: Each specimen showed various composition even within the same patient. For example, the area occupied by RBCs was 20.9% ± 12.1%, 30.5% ± 13.5%, and 41.3% ± 16.1% in the clot retrieved from the proximal and distal parts of the stent retriever, and those aspirated through the guiding catheter, respectively.
Conclusion: Histopathological clot composition may vary even within the patient. Further research is needed to investigate more objective methods of histopathological analysis and their clinical significance.
Objective: We treated a case of scalp arteriovenous malformation (sAVM) by transvenous embolization using Onyx.
Case Presentations: We describe the case of a 17-year-old woman with a pulsatile mass at the right temporal area. DSA identified sAVM with the venous pouch between the right occipital artery (OA) and the right two occipital veins (OVs), which was also fed by multiple branches of the right posterior auricular artery (PAA) and superficial temporal artery (STA). The shunts were completely occluded by the reverse pressure cooker technique (RPCT), which involves navigating the balloon catheters just distal to the shunt point in the OVs approaching from the right external jugular vein (EJV) and injecting Onyx to each feeder retrogradely with balloons inflated.
Conclusion: This technique may be useful for treating sAVM with venous angioarchitecture enabling a transvenous approach.
Objective: Posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula (PCC DAVF) is extremely rare, with only four previously reported cases in the English literature. Cases may present tinnitus and radiculopathy. In cases where the drainer is around the brainstem, subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhages (IVHs) may occur. We describe the clinical presentation, angiographic imaging, and endovascular treatment strategy of a PCC DAVF.
Case Presentation: A 30-year-old woman presented to our hospital with tinnitus and stiffness of the shoulder. Neuroimaging studies showed DAVF with fistulous points around right PCC consisted of a high-flow shunt, fed mainly by the occipital artery, and drained to the suboccipital cavernous sinus (SCS) and internal jugular vein. The lesion was treated with a combination of transvenous coil embolization and transarterial Onyx injection. The patient recovered immediately after intervention and had no neurological deficits in the follow-up visit.
Conclusion: In this case, endovascular treatment was performed safely without recurrence so far. A strategy combining transvenous coil embolization and transarterial Onyx injection may be an effective treatment for PCC DAVF with high-flow shunt. Further case accumulation is desired.
Objective: Endovascular therapy (EVT) is a well-documented treatment for acute occlusion of major cerebral arteries. We carried out in-hospital triage using the emergency large vessel occlusion (ELVO) screen, a pre-hospital scale for acute stroke, to diagnose EVT cases and considered its efficacy.
Methods: We investigated stroke cases examined within 24 hours of onset in a 6-month period beginning on March 15, 2019. The results of ELVO screen were retrospectively considered with the presence of atrial fibrillation and treatment of EVT.
Results: A total of 146 cases were included. Of the 65 positive ELVO screen cases, 33 (51%) had large vessel occlusion (LVO). Of the 81 negative ELVO screen cases, 11 (14%) had LVO (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 69%; positive predictive value, 51%; negative predictive value, 86%; accuracy, 71%; P <0.001). Among LVO cases, 16 of the 33 (48%) positive ELVO screen cases and 2 of the 11 (18%) negative ELVO screen cases were treated by EVT. Complications of atrial fibrillation were significantly more common in positive ELVO screen cases (P = 0.001). EVT was carried out in nearly half of the positive ELVO screen cases of atrial fibrillation, being a significantly higher rate (10 of 24 cases, 42%; P = 0.02).
Conclusion: The accuracy of EVT use increased in positive ELVO screen cases, particularly in those with atrial fibrillation. In-hospital triage using ELVO screen, a pre-hospital scale, significantly aided in selecting patients requiring EVT.
Objective: Endovascular treatment for complex wide-necked basilar tip aneurysms is challenging. Multiple stenting may be an option to deal with such aneurysms; however, the risk of ischemic complications is reported to be relatively high. Here, we report a case of unruptured basilar tip aneurysm treated using the intentional stent herniation technique to preserve the aneurysmal neck branches.
Case Presentation: A 65-year-old woman presented with a growing unruptured basilar tip aneurysm associated with bilateral posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) arising from the aneurysmal dome. We intentionally selected a large-sized Neuroform Atlas stent (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI, USA) compared to the parent artery and deployed it along the right PCA to the basilar artery. The stent was herniated into the aneurysmal dome near the origin of the left PCA, resulting in the preservation of the left PCA. Successful coil embolization was achieved with acceptable obliteration.
Conclusion: The intentional stent herniation technique may be an effective approach to treat complex wide-necked basilar tip aneurysms.
Objective: Accidental puncture of the vertebral artery (VA) by central venous catheters and other devices has been reported as a rare complication. We performed endovascular therapy in the acute phase in a patient in whom a large-caliber sheath was misinserted into the VA.
Case Presentation: A 68-year-old woman scheduled for open heart surgery had an 8-Fr. sheath inserted through the right internal jugular vein (IJV). This sheath penetrated the IJV and was misplaced in the V1 segment of the right VA. Endovascular therapy was performed. First, a 9-Fr. balloon-guiding catheter (BGC) was inserted and a 0.035-inch guidewire was pulled through it and the 8-Fr. sheath misinserted into the right VA. A 6-Fr. guiding catheter was inserted into the left VA and the microcatheter reached distal of where the sheath was inserted via the basilarunion. Then, the same area was embolized with coils to block retrograde blood flow. The BGC was then guided to the right VA origin using a pull-through wire while the 8-Fr. sheath was carefully withdrawn. The sheath was pulled back until just before exiting the VA and additional coils were placed via a microcatheter inserted into the BGC to occlude the right VA. Postoperatively, the patient had no neurological findings.
Conclusion: We reported a rare case of iatrogenic VA injury. Attention to hemorrhage and intracranial blood flow resulted in a favorable outcome.
Objective: We report a rare case of intraosseous arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in the petrous bone occluded by transvenous coil embolization, complicated by transient hearing loss postoperatively.
Case Presentation: A 55-year-old female patient underwent medical examination for vertigo and headache. CT showed an osteolytic lesion in the right petrous bone. CTA and DSA revealed an AVF that had caused bone erosion. We performed transvenous coil embolization to obtain complete occlusion of the fistula. Vertigo disappeared soon after the procedure, but hearing loss in the right side worsened to near deafness by that night. We started steroid pulse therapy and heparinization. The hearing gradually recovered to the preoperative level in 10 days.
Conclusion: It is important to pay attention to possible hearing loss in cases of transvenous coil embolization for intraosseous AVF in the petrous bone.
Objective: The recurrence rate of coiled ruptured cerebral aneurysms is greater than that of clipped aneurysms. The aim of this study is to determine the factors that relate to the recurrence of embolized, ruptured cerebral aneurysms, and the evidence thereto.
Methods: From April 2007 through July 2017, we treated 134 ruptured cerebral aneurysm cases by coiling. DSA and/or MRI were done in 98 saccular aneurysm cases one year after the coiling. Recurrence was defined as enlargement of the aneurysm neck or contrast opacification along the aneurysm wall. A chi-square test and a logistic regression analysis were done to analyze the relationship between aneurysm recurrence and clinical factors.
Results: The median follow-up period was 58 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 33–107). Ten cases (10.2%) were subjected to aneurysm recurrence. Internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms proximal to the posterior communicating artery, incomplete obliteration of an aneurysm at initial embolization and postoperative DSA during day 9 ± 2, and increased contrast medium in the aneurysm at postoperative DSA during day 9 ± 2 were all statistically related to the recurrence of the aneurysm. Logistic regression analysis showed that the increased contrast medium in the aneurysm at day 9 ± 2 was statistically related to aneurysm recurrence (p <0.0001). Recurrence or retreatment of the aneurysm did not influence the outcome.
Conclusion: Complete obliteration of the aneurysm at the first session is important. Recurrence of an embolized ruptured aneurysm can be estimated by postoperative DSA at day 9 ± 2 days.
Objective: To report the outcomes of thrombectomy for arterial occlusion involving the major arteries of the cerebral anterior circulation when an aspiration catheter (AC) was used in all cases, with the retrieval technique chosen during the procedure.
Methods: Of the 126 patients who underwent endovascular thrombectomy during the 2-year period of 2018–2019, the study subjects were 102 patients with arterial occlusion involving the major arteries of the cerebral anterior circulation. Patients were divided into two groups depending on when the procedure was performed. In the earlier group (January 2018–March 2019), treatment was performed using only a stent retriever (SR), whereas an AC was used for all cases in the later group (April–December 2019). Outcomes between groups were retrospectively compared. In the later group, the treatment strategy was to use the SR in combination with the AC (combined technique) for retrieval if the microcatheter reached the distal side of the occlusion site without difficulty. If the microcatheter did not easily reach the distal side, we did not stick to penetrating the occlusion site, and contact aspiration was performed.
Results: Thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) grade 2b–3 was achieved in 85% of patients in the earlier group and 95% in the later group. TICI grade 3 was achieved in 52% of the earlier group and 54% of the later group, showing no significant difference. TICI grade 2b–3 was achieved at first pass in 46% of patients in the earlier group, significantly lower than the 71% in the later group (P = 0.013). The mean number of passes decreased significantly from 1.84 in the earlier group to 1.32 in the later group (P = 0.002).
Conclusion: Using an AC from the start, and using a combined technique when the microcatheter reached the distal side of the occlusion site, the frequency of first-pass TICI grade 2b-3 increased, and the mean number of passes decreased in comparison with the SR-alone group.
Objective: Accurately determining the clot position is highly important for immediate recanalization when endovascular mechanical thrombectomy is performed using a stent retriever and aspiration catheter. We describe a new method that facilitates the precise identification of the clot position called pull the trigger sign (PTS).
Case Presentation: Selective angiography was performed through a 0.027-inch microcatheter that penetrated the clot into the distal lumen. Although the contrast media highlighted the occluded artery, it often stagnated in the distal artery. It was washed away at a certain point when a stent clot retriever was deployed over the potential clot site. We hypothesized that this point represented the exact position of the clot’s proximal end and used in vitro analyses to assess this hypothesis. Briefly, a circulation-enabled silicone vascular model in which colored water was used to simulate stagnation beyond a fake clot was developed and utilized to investigate PTS six times. The rate of identifying PTS in the vascular model was 100%. As hypothesized, stagnant fluid was washed away when the deployed stent reached the clot’s proximal position. The clinical efficacy of PTS was also confirmed.
Conclusion: PTS was useful in revealing the precise position of clot’s proximal end, which enabled safer contact aspiration when using an aspiration catheter. Thus, PTS led to a higher success rate and faster recanalization in the first attempt than conventional methods.
Objective: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a life-threatening cardiovascular event associated with high mortality and morbidity. The presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with acute PE represents a risk factor for mortality. Furthermore, a thrombus-in-transit via a PFO with impending paradoxical embolism carries a high mortality rate.
Case Presentation: An adult patient with ischemic stroke caused by paradoxical embolism following PE underwent mechanical thrombectomy and achieved successful recanalization. Initial CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) showed not only pulmonary thromboemboli but also bilateral atrial thromboemboli. During hospitalization, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed the PFO with a right-to-left shunt. Two months after rehabilitation undergone by the patient, PE completely disappeared and PFO closure was conducted to reduce the recurrence risk of ischemic stroke.
Conclusion: Not only cardiologists but also interventional neurologists should understand that CTPA can demonstrate the thrombus-in-transit through the PFO and provides a reliable prediction of the sudden onset of ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic PE. When identified, considering a case-by-case treatment approach by multidisciplinary teams is essential for preventing further life-threatening paradoxical embolization.
Objective: We investigated whether thoraco-cervical CTA provided useful information to determine an access route (AR) for mechanical thrombectomy (MT).
Methods: We included acute stroke patients who (1) were admitted between January 2018 and December 2018 and (2) underwent MT for large artery occlusion in the anterior circulation and were able to be treated within 24 hours of the time last known to be well. We evaluated the AR, occlusion site, aortic arch (AA) type, take-off angles (TOA) between the arch and the left common carotid artery (CCA) or the brachiocephalic artery (BCA), successful insertion rate (SIR) of the guiding catheter, puncture-to-initial angiography time (PtIA), and puncture-to-reperfusion time (PtR).
Results: We analyzed 32 patients: femoral-artery access (group F) in 26 and brachial-artery access (group B) in 6 patients. There were no differences in arch types between the two groups, but there were differences in occlusion sites: proximal CCA occlusion in two patients in the B group. Moreover, the TOA of the CCA was less than 25° in two patients in the B group. In the F and B groups, the SIR was 100%, the median PtIA was 9.0 and 9.6 minutes, and the median PtR was 54 and 72 minutes, respectively.
Conclusion: Thoraco-cervical CTA provided useful information to determine the appropriate AR for MT. SIR of 100% and short PtIA were achieved.
Objective: There is a limited understanding of the characteristics of individual intracranial stents used for aneurysm treatment. We used an experimental model to evaluate the physical characteristics of support stents for aneurysm embolization.
Methods: Enterprise 2 VRD 4.0 × 39 mm, Neuroform Atlas 4.5 × 21 mm, and LVIS 4.5 × 32 mm stents were: 1) observed under light microscopy and subjected to measurements of 2) circumferential radial force, 3) strut tension, 4) stent compression, and 5) conformability upon bending.
Results: 1) Light microscopy showed a large structural difference between laser-cut (Enterprise 2 VRD, Neuroform Atlas) and braided (LVIS) stents. 2) Within the range of indicated blood vessel diameters, the radial force of Enterprise 2 VRD was higher than that of Neuroform Atlas. An extremely large force was required to decrease the LVIS diameter. 3) Neuroform Atlas easily deformed compared to Enterprise 2 VRD, while LVIS was extended with a smaller traction force than that required for Neuroform Atlas. 4) The compression strength was in the order of Enterprise 2 VRD >Neuroform Atlas >LVIS. 5) Enterprise 2 VRD showed a decreased cell area on the concave side, and Neuroform Atlas showed deformation with overlapping struts on the concave side. LVIS naturally adhered to the wall of the blood vessel model.
Conclusion: Laser-cut and braided stents showed different physical characteristics that were visualized and shown as numerical data. These findings improve the understanding of the proper use of these stents in clinical applications.
Objective: Asymptomatic intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is a rare disease that is often undiagnosed before symptom onset. The present study aimed to examine the detection rate and radiological features of asymptomatic intracranial DAVF using brain MRI data obtained from the Japanese brain check-up system.
Methods: We retrospectively identified 11745 individuals who underwent brain MRI between January 2010 and December 2014. After a routine brain MRI screening, a definite diagnosis was made based on DSA. Data regarding sex, age, disease location, classification type, and treatment method were extracted from the system database and patients’ medical records.
Results: Six individuals (0.05%; mean age, 61.0 ± 9.7 years) were diagnosed with definite intracranial DAVF. The intracranial DAVFs were located in the transverse sinus, confluence, and tentorial sinus in 2, 1, and 3 case(s), respectively. Cortical venous reflux was confirmed in four cases (66.7%), and none of the cases had intracranial hemorrhage or venous congestion. All cases had infratentorial lesions and two-thirds were Borden type II/III.
Conclusion: The detection rate of asymptomatic intracranial DAVF was 0.05% based on the analysis of MRI data from the brain check-up system. Low-flow shunt and tiny cortical venous reflux were likely missed on MRI.
Objective: To elucidate the current state of in-hospital acute ischemic stroke under the introduction of acute-phase mechanical thrombectomy.
Methods: The study included 18 consecutive patients with in-hospital cerebral infarction who underwent thrombectomy between April 2014 and March 2020 at St. Marianna University School of Medicine Yokohama City Seibu Hospital. We analyzed the primary disease, department responsible for treatment, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores before onset and on discharge, status of onset, treatment course, and so on.
Results: The mean age was 79.9 (66–93) years. There were nine females. The admission methods included scheduled admission in 5 patients and non-scheduled admission in 13 patients. The primary diseases consisted of malignant tumors in five patients and heart disease in four patients. The departments responsible for treatment consisted of the Department of Digestive Surgery for six patients and Department of Cardiology for three patients. The mRS score before admission was evaluated as 0–2 in 15 patients and 3–5 in 3 patients. The embolism was evaluated as cardiogenic in 14 patients. Antithrombotic therapy was discontinued before the onset of cerebral infarction in three patients. The mean interval from onset or last well known (LWK) until CT/MRI and puncture was 88.4 and 157.6 minutes. The median Alberta stroke program early CT score (ASPECTS; minimum–maximum) was 8 (2–10). Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) was administered to five patients. Concerning the degree of recanalization, the thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) grade was evaluated as 1 to 2a in 2 patients and 2b to 3 in 16. In the latter, the mean interval from onset or final onset-free confirmation until recanalization was 197.7 minutes. mRS score on discharge was evaluated as 0–2 in four patients, 3–5 in nine, and 6 in five patients. The mortality was related to a primary disease requiring admission in three patients.
Conclusion: In-hospital onset cerebral infarction was markedly influenced by the primary disease requiring admission. Even when favorable recanalization was achieved, the number of patients with a favorable outcome was small.
Objective: The most important function required for the stroke center is prompt treatment for acute stroke. We report the initial results of stroke care under the new medical care system of stroke center in a new hospital that merges three hospitals with different management bases to verify the effect of stroke center on mechanical thrombectomy.
Methods: We investigated changes in the number of inpatients and surgical treatments compared with the past 3 years (Stages I, II, and III) with stage IV one year after the new hospital was opened, and examined the effect of establishing a stroke center on mechanical thrombectomy for acute main cerebral artery occlusion.
Results: From stage I to stage IV, the number of hospitalized patients increased from 396, 485, 482 to 630, respectively, and the proportion of patients with cerebrovascular disease increased from 57.6%, 55.7%, 60.4% to 68.3%, respectively. Total surgical treatment increased from 137, 195, 224 to 297, respectively, especially endovascular therapy increased markedly from 22, 36, 68 to 118, respectively. The main treatment contents of endovascular treatment in stage IV were ruptured cerebral aneurysm embolization 22 cases, unruptured cerebral aneurysm embolization 13 cases, carotid artery stenting 23 cases, other intracranial or extracranial artery angioplasty/stenting 9 cases, and mechanical thrombectomy 34 cases. In particular, mechanical thrombectomy was significantly increased to 34 in stage IV, compared to 4 in stage I, 4 in stage II, and 17 in stage III (degree of contribution [DC] 25.0%, contribution ratio [CR] 34.0%).
Conclusion: With the establishment of the stroke center, the number of cases of acute cerebral infarction within the adaptation time who received mechanical thrombectomy remarkably increased. It is considered that the effect and validity of function aggregation by establishing stroke center are shown.
Objective: The balloon-assisted technique is one of the methods used for cerebral aneurysm embolization. There are several applications of assisting balloons such as remodeling the neck of cerebral aneurysms, protecting blood vessel branches, and stabilizing the microcatheter. In this study, we measured the pressure inside inflated assisting balloons to assess safety or procedure.
Methods: A T-junction silicone model was used. The pressure inside the balloon inflated to the set herniation levels in the T-junction model was measured using a fiber pressure sensor. We compared the pressure and difference between each assisting balloon.
Results: The pressure required for inflating the balloon to the set herniation level in the T-junction model varied depending on the type of assisting balloon. The results suggest that differences in pressure among inflated balloons are likely attributable to differences in the materials used in the lumens of the balloons.
Conclusion: The pressure inside various inflated assisting balloons was measured for comparison and differences were found. This experiment contributes to the safety of the balloon-assisted technique.
Objective: A case of posterior cerebral artery (P1 segment) occlusion with consciousness disturbance and Weber’s syndrome treated by mechanical thrombectomy is reported.
Case Presentation: The patient was a 69-year-old man with consciousness disturbance, left hemiparesis, and anisocoria. MRI revealed acute cerebral infarction in the midbrain and right thalamus. Angiography demonstrated that the right P1 segment was occluded and mechanical thrombectomy was performed. The right P1 segment and its perforator artery, the artery of Percheron (AOP), were both recanalized after the treatment, and the symptoms of perforator occlusion significantly improved.
Conclusion: Mechanical thrombectomy for P1 segment occlusion may be effective for improving the symptoms caused by occlusion of its perforator, the AOP.
Objective: Mechanical thrombectomy is performed on ischemic stroke patients with acute major cerebral artery occlusion within 24 hours of symptom onset. We report a case of delayed mechanical thrombectomy for acute left internal carotid artery occlusion.
Case Presentation: A 76-year-old woman suddenly presented with dysarthria and right hemiparesis was admitted to her previous hospital. She was treated by conservative therapy. The next day, she was transferred to our hospital 26 hours after onset with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke due to left carotid artery acute occlusion. Contrast CT revealed left carotid artery occlusion. Arterial fibrillation was detected. Mechanical thrombectomy through the right brachial artery was immediately performed. Complete recanalization was achieved without hemorrhagic complication. Her postoperative course was uneventful.
Conclusion: In this case, delayed mechanical thrombectomy for acute major cerebral artery occlusion was safely performed 24 hours after symptom onset.
Objective: We report the utility of microcatheter reshaping by referring to fusion images with 3D-DSA and microcatheter 3D images made using non-subtraction and non-contrast (non-SC) rotational images.
Case Presentations: Case 1: The patient was a 74-year-old man who had an internal carotid-anterior choroidal artery bifurcation aneurysm with a tortuous proximal parent artery. The initial attempt to introduce the microcatheter into the aneurysm was unsuccessful. During this unsuccessful microcatheter introduction, we created fusion images with 3D-DSA and microcatheter 3D images by acquiring positional information of the microcatheter using the non-SC method. By reshaping the microcatheter with reference to the fusion images, the direction of the distal end of the microcatheter was reshaped to be in accordance with the long axis of the aneurysm, a shape more suitable for coiling. Case 2: The patient was a 47-year-old man who had an anterior communicating (A-com) artery aneurysm with two daughter sacs. We successfully placed two microcatheters in the direction of each sac to make more stable framing by referring to 3D fusion images after the first microcatheter was positioned. In both cases, microcatheter reshaping was necessary because of the vessel and aneurysm anatomy. We have used this technique successfully in 15 patients, for both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. The average number of microcatheter reshaping was 1.3 times.
Conclusion: This method provides effective microcatheter reshaping for coil embolization of aneurysms, particularly those with differences between the axis of the parent artery and the vertical axis of aneurysm, or with a tortuous proximal artery.
Objectives: The safety and efficacy of thrombectomy for small-artery occlusions is still controversial. In April 2019, Tron Fx, a stent retriever with an expansion diameter of 2 mm, became reimbursed by health insurance in Japan. We report on cases of thrombectomy for small-artery occlusions performed using this device in seven patients.
Methods: The subjects were seven patients who underwent thrombectomy between July 2019 and June 2020 using Tron Fx with 2 mm in diameter. We analyzed clinical results including recanalization and complications.
Results: The mean age of the seven patients was 80.1 years, and the subjects included six men. The sites of occlusion were the middle cerebral artery M2 (n = 4), M4 (n = 1), anterior cerebral artery A2 (n = 1), and A3 (n = 1). One of the seven patients had an M2 occlusion that was formed during coil embolization for a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. In five cases, four cases were of primary occlusion and one case was of emboli into a new territory, treating with only Tron Fx 2 mm resulted in thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) 2b–3 in four cases. There was one case of grade 0, which was M4 occlusion. Finally, TICI 2b–3 were achieved in six of seven cases. No symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred. Symptoms improved in five of six patients, excluding a vascular occlusion that occurred during surgery.
Conclusion: Tron Fx with 2 mm diameter can be used safely for small-artery occlusion. The introduction of Tron Fx with 2 mm diameter may contribute to expand indications for thrombectomy for small-artery occlusions.
Objective: A traumatic vertebral artery (VA) injury may result in serious cerebral infarction in the vertebrobasilar area. However, the approach to its diagnosis and the optimal treatment have not yet been established. We present a patient with traumatic occlusion of a unilateral VA due to the multiple cervical spine fractures who required decompression and fixation, in whom the injured VA was coil embolized distal to the occlusion prior to the cervical spine surgery.
Case Presentations: A 47-year-old woman was injured in a car accident and, presented with C6-C7 superior articular process fractures and C2-C3 ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) with sensory hypoesthesia and motor palsy of the left upper limb. MRA showed left VA occlusion and patent contralateral VA. DSA showed left VA occlusion from the origin to C5/6 and its antegrade flow by collateral orthodromic circulation from the muscular branches. To prevent vertebrobasilar infarction due to migration of the thrombus from the occluded VA which was recanalized by surgical fixation, distal coil embolization of the injured VA by navigating a microcatheter through the contralateral VA across the vertebrobasilar junction was performed. Neither ischemic events nor new neurologic symptoms occurred during follow-up.
Conclusion: Preoperative coil embolization to a traumatic VA occlusion can be one of the therapeutic choices to prevent thromboembolic stroke after cervical spine surgery. When the proximal segment of the VA was injured and VA occluded from origin, this treatment strategy is feasible, safe, and effective.
Objective: We report the effectiveness of retrograde angiography via the contralateral carotid angiography using a dual puncture technique in mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for non-T occlusion in patients with acute internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion not involving the ICA terminus.
Case Presentation: In the dual puncture technique, arterial puncture is performed at two sites: a balloon guiding catheter (BGC) is navigated to the ICA on the affected side and another catheter is navigated to the unaffected side. Thrombus retrieval is performed by manual aspiration through the BGC and MT using a stent retriever and/or aspiration device. Reperfusion is confirmed by retrograde angiography via the carotid artery on the unaffected side, with manual aspiration through the BGC on the affected side. Throughout the procedure, the BGC blocks the blood flow in the ICA on the affected side until reperfusion is confirmed. No distal embolization was occurred in our three patients treated using this technique.
Conclusion: Application of the dual puncture technique on MT is recommended for non-T occlusion to prevent distal embolization.
Objective: We report the characteristics of the platelet aggregation test using Hematracer ZEN (HTZ; DS medical, Tokyo, Japan) during the perioperative period.
Methods: Among patients undergoing neuroendovascular treatment (EVT) at our hospital between June 2019 and June 2020, 42 consecutive patients with preoperative dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) were included. Oral administration of aspirin (ASA) at 81 mg and clopidogrel (CLP) at 75 mg was started 7 days before treatment (Flow Diverter [FD]: 14 days before). We evaluated platelet aggregation activity the day before treatment (FD: 2 days before) using HTZ. We adjusted the CLP dose according to the platelet aggregation test in each patient. We evaluated the platelet aggregating activity after EVT in patients requiring an intracranial stent or in which CLP was adjusted before EVT.
Results: Platelet aggregating activity was able to be evaluated in all patients. In the preoperative examination, the efficacy of CLP was insufficient in one patient (2.4%), optimal medical effects were confirmed in 16 (38.1%), mildly excessive effects were noted in 10 (23.8%), and highly excessive effects were noted in 15 (35.7%). Reassessment was performed postoperatively in 20 patients. We switched CLP to prasugrel in one patient in which the CLP efficacy was considered insufficient in the preoperative evaluation. We reduced the CLP dose in seven patients with marked overdose, and the optimum range was reached in all. We did not adjust the CLP dose in 12 patients judged to have optimal or mildly excessive effects preoperatively, but 4 exhibited highly excessive drug efficacy and required CLP reduction. No postoperative symptomatic cerebral infarction or intracranial hemorrhage was observed (mean observation period: 11 months, range: 4–16 months).
Conclusion: The platelet aggregation test using HTZ was simple and inexpensive, and was useful for adjusting the dose of antiplatelet drugs, but its utility should be evaluated in more patients.
Objective: Acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion (LVO) in hospitalized patients is relatively rare but important condition. However, unlike community-onset cases, there are only few time-saving protocols for in-hospital LVO. This study aimed to evaluate the time-saving effects of rapid response system (RRS) for the management of in-hospital LVO.
Methods: We retrospectively evaluated consecutive in-hospital LVO patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) between April 2015 and January 2020. In November 2017, we added “acute hemiparesis, eye deviation, and convulsive seizures” to the activation criteria for RRS. In this protocol, the patient is immediately transported from the ward to the emergency room (ER) by Medical Emergency Team (MET). The stroke team can then start assessment in the same manner as for community-onset cases. The time metrics between those with and without RRS intervention were compared. The primary outcome was time from detection to the first assessment by stroke team and to initial CT. To investigate the validity of the revised criteria, we also analyzed all RRS-activated cases.
Results: In total, 26 patients (RRS group, 11 patients; non-RRS group, 15 patients) were included. The median time from detection to stroke team assessment (10.0 [interquartile range: IQR, 8–15] minutes vs 65.5 [18–89] minutes) and to CT (22.0 [16–31] minutes vs. 46.5 [35–93] minutes) were significantly shorter in the RRS group. RRS was activated in 34 patients (mean, 1.3/month) according to the added criteria, of whom 20 (58.8%) had cerebral infarction and 9 underwent MT. About two-thirds of the other patients developed neurological emergencies (e.g., epileptic seizure, syncope, or hypoglycemia) that required acute care.
Conclusion: RRS has the potential to shorten response time efficiently in the management of in-hospital LVO. Prompt transportation of the patient to the ER by MET enables faster intervention by the stroke team.
Objective: Although Onyx has made effective embolization possible in the endovascular treatment of arteriovenous malformation (AVM), its infusion requires a high level of skill and experience. The purpose of this study is to create a simulation model that will help to solve this technical issue.
Model Presentation: Using data of 3D DSA images of a clinical case, an acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) resin model of the AVM was created with a 3D printer. Then, a hollow elastic model was created by applying silicone and eluting the ABS resin, which was finally connected to the human vascular model. Simulation of angiography and Onyx embolization using the model showed similar angiographic features and flow dynamics of contrast media and Onyx. During Onyx embolization, the plug and push technique could be performed as in a clinical case.
Conclusion: 3D AVM model created with 3D printer enabled us to stimulate Onyx embolization of AVM.
Objective: We present a preoperative simulation of cerebral aneurysm coil embolization using a hollow model of cerebral blood vessels created by a stereolithography (SLA) 3D printer.
Case Presentation: The patient was a 66-year-old woman. During follow-up, coil embolization was planned for an expanding paraclinoid aneurysm. A hollow cerebral vascular model was created preoperatively using an SLA 3D printer. The catheter was malleable and inserted into the hollow model, which enabled the surgeons to confirm its movement, stability, and ease of insertion. In the surgical procedure, the catheter was easily inserted into the aneurysm without reshaping. The procedure was completed without stability problems.
Conclusion: The use of a hollow model of cerebral blood vessels was useful as a preoperative simulation and improved the safety of the procedure.
Objective: We report the use of a Goose Neck microsnare for cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion in a patient with dolichoarteriopathy in whom it was difficult to achieve recanalization.
Case Presentation: A 65-year-old woman underwent thrombectomy for a tandem lesion of left M1 occlusion and left cervical ICA occlusion. Recanalization of left M1 occlusion was achieved. For left cervical ICA occlusion, we attempted multiple thrombectomy using an existing device, but a hard clot with mobility was caught due to dolichoarteriopathy, which made thrombectomy difficult. Using a Goose Neck microsnare, we were able to capture the thrombus and achieve recanalization.
Conclusion: Thrombectomy by capturing the thrombus using a Goose Neck microsnare may be useful for capturing hard clots with mobility when it is difficult to achieve recanalization with existing devices.
Objective: We report a case in which two coils became stuck in a microcatheter at the end of coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm.
Case Presentation: Two coils became stuck in the microcatheter at the final stage of stent-assisted coil embolization for an unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The rear end of a detached coil was near the tip of the microcatheter. The coil inserted next was pushed out of the microcatheter and pulled back into the microcatheter. Then, the rear end of the detached coil and the retracted coil meshed into the microcatheter, and became immobile. The microcatheter and these two coils were removed simultaneously, and coil embolization was finished.
Conclusion: At the end of coil embolization, the filling rate is relatively high. Insertion of another coil and traction may cause the coils to become stuck in the microcatheter.
Objective: We report a patient with chronic headache due to idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) associated with transverse sinus (TS) stenosis. The symptom improved after stent placement at the site of stenosis.
Case Presentation: The patient was a 37-year-old woman with progressive headache and diplopia as chief complaints. She had severe bilateral papilledema. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography revealed stenosis of the bilateral TS. Lumbar puncture demonstrated raised intracranial pressure and IIH was tentatively diagnosed. Visual impairment progressed despite oral acetazolamide therapy. A venous pressure gradient was monitored during stent placement. The pressure gradient improved after stenting. Dual antiplatelet therapy was initiated 1 week before the procedure. Papilledema and headache resolved immediately after the procedure. No in-stent stenosis or occlusion occurred during the follow-up period.
Conclusion: Stent placement for TS stenosis can improve the cerebral venous return in IIH patients. Although restenosis is possible, venous sinus stenting is considered an effective treatment.
Objective: This study investigated the changes in higher brain function and cerebral blood flow (CBF) after carotid artery stenting (CAS), the relationship with CBF, and the impact of high intensities in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) after CAS.
Method: We performed CAS between September 2017 and September 2019 in our department in 88 patients. Patients who did not undergo higher brain function tests according to our protocol or those who did not consent to participate in our study were excluded. This study targeted the 26 patients who were able to undergo the tests, including the Kana Pick-out Test (KPOT) II, three times: before, 1 week after, and 1–3 months after CAS. We investigated the chronological changes in higher brain function and their relationship with high intensity on DWI.
Result: The results of Symbol Digit Modalities Tests (SDMT) and KPOT I and II improved significantly. There was a significant correlation between the improvement of higher brain function and CBF in patients with stenosis exceeding 60%, a score of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) of 26 or less, and without other cause of higher brain dysfunction, including known dementia. High-intensity spots on DWI after CAS had no significant impact on higher brain function.
Conclusion: Higher brain function associated with attention and working memory improved significantly after CAS. There was a correlation between the improvement of higher brain function and CBF in patients with severe stenosis, mild cognitive impairment, and no known dementia. The prevention of subsequent ischemic attack and higher brain function should both be taken into account when performing CAS.
Objective: We report the usefulness and pitfalls of coil embolization using the T or half T-stent technique for aneurysms located at internal carotid artery-posterior communicating artery (ICA-P-com) bifurcation in which the neck is wide and the P-com must be kept patent due to it being the fetal-type with a hypoplastic P1 segment.
Case Presentations: Two cases were treated using the T-stent technique and two were treated using the half T-stent technique. The average age of the patients was 70.3 years and all were females. One aneurysm ruptured. The average size of aneurysms and neck was 12 mm and 8.5 mm, respectively, in the T-stent group, and 7.4 mm and 6.7 mm, respectively, in the half T-stent group. An S- or pigtail-shaped microcatheter (MC) was used to navigate into the P-com. Stent deployment was successful in all the cases. Retreatment was required in one case treated using the T-stent technique due to major recurrence.
Conclusion: T or half T-stent-assisted coil embolization can be an alternative endovascular treatment method for wide-necked ICA-P-com aneurysms in which the P-com must be kept patent due to it being the fetal-type with a hypoplastic P1 segment.
Objective: To describe the technique of using a Woven Endo Bridge (WEB) device to treat a ruptured bilobed blister-like aneurysm (BLA) at the basilar artery (BA) fenestration.
Case Presentation: A previously healthy 66-year-old female presented at the emergency room with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), centered around the brainstem. Unenhanced CT and CT angiography showed a BLA of a basilar fenestration limb. The angiogram confirmed the diagnosis. A WEB device was chosen to treat this rare and challenging aneurysm.
Conclusion: In this article, we describe the successful endovascular treatment of a SAH patient with a ruptured BLA at the basilar artery fenestration using a WEB device. And an overview of treatment options is provided.
Objective: Mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has become popular in recent years. Our affiliated institutes without neuro-endovascular specialists call our department to come to assist and perform thrombectomy (Drip and Go). In this study, the effectiveness of this inter-hospital cooperative system was evaluated.
Methods: Between January 2016 and December 2018, “Drip and Go” was performed in a total of 29 patients (20 males, average age of 75 years) from four hospitals located within a 1-hour drive, that frequently called for AIS assistance. The background and outcomes of such cases were then retrospectively collected and evaluated.
Results: The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and diffusion-weighed image-Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score (DWI-ASPECTS) were 19 and 7, respectively. Gro in puncture was performed in 27 patients (93%) within 6 h of onset. Good reperfusion (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction [TICI] 2b/3) was obtained in 24 patients (82%) with only one patient exhibiting hemorrhagic complication. A total of 12 patients (41%) had a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0–3 after 90 days or at the time of discharge. Univariate analysis identified a DWI-ASPECTS of 7 or higher as the only significant factor associated with a good neurological prognosis (P <0.05). Neurological prognosis was the most favorable at the furthest hospital where patients had a good DWI-ASPECTS.
Conclusion: By employing a 1-hour arrival time window and proper patient selection, the “Drip and Go” inter-hospital cooperative system can be an alternative approach for covering areas where no neuro-endovascular specialists are available for AIS.
Objective: We treated a patient with internal carotid artery and vertebral artery ostium in-stent restenosis (ISR) treated by cutting balloon (CB) angioplasty.
Case Presentation: A 79-year-old man developed dizziness and right homonymous upper quadrantanopia. On arrival, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed acute-stage brain infarction. Angiography demonstrated left internal carotid artery and vertebral artery ostium stenosis (VAOS), which was thought to be related to the infarction. We performed stenting for both lesions, but 5 months later, restenosis occurred. The patient was successfully retreated by CB angioplasty for both lesions.
Conclusion: When treating carotid or vertebral artery ISR, plain balloon (PB) and stent-in-stent (SIS) procedures may induce insufficient dilatation, and hamper re-retreatment because of neointimal hyperplasia. Using CB should be considered as an option in such cases.
Objective: We report a case of cerebellar infarction caused by radiation-induced common carotid artery stenosis.
Case Presentation: The patient was a 72-year-old man who underwent irradiation for hypopharyngeal carcinoma 13 years ago. He was referred for asymptomatic left common carotid artery stenosis, but was brought to our hospital by ambulance with transient dysarthria and right facial dysesthesia 2 days after referral. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed acute infarction in the left cerebellar hemisphere, and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) demonstrated that the blood flow in the left internal carotid artery perfused the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) retrogradely through the left posterior communicating artery. The patient underwent carotid artery stenting (CAS) for left common carotid artery stenosis and blood flow in the left PICA improved; however, in-stent restenosis was revealed during follow-up. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for in-stent restenosis was performed 9 months after the surgery.
Conclusion: We reported a rare case of ischemia in the PICA area caused by radiation-induced common carotid artery stenosis. Although CAS is recommended for the treatment of radiation-induced carotid artery stenosis, careful treatment and follow-up are needed to prevent perioperative complications and detect in-stent restenosis after CAS.
Objective: Blood blister-like aneurysms (BBA) often develop on the anterior wall of the internal carotid artery, and few cases have been reported at other sites. We report a case of stent-assisted coil embolization in the acute phase for a ruptured BBA of the basilar artery.
Case Presentation: A 53-year-old woman underwent emergency stent-assisted coil embolization for subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured BBA in the main trunk of the basilar artery. Seven months after the operation, cerebral angiography confirmed no recurrence and a good clinical course.
Conclusion: Stent-assisted coil embolization for BBA may be one treatment option.
Objective: We report a case of the marked growth and rupture of a giant femoral artery pseudoaneurysm at the puncture site that developed after recanalization therapy for acute basilar artery occlusion
Case Presentation: A 79-year-old woman developed acute ischemic stroke due to atherosclerotic basilar artery occlusion. Endovascular intervention was performed and recanalization of the affected vessel was achieved. However, she developed brainstem infarction and consciousness disturbance persisted. The femoral access site was treated using a vascular closure device at the end of the procedure. A right femoral artery pseudoaneurysm of approximately 5 cm in size was found 2 weeks after onset during the examination for deep venous thrombosis with right lower extremity edema. Manual compression did not achieve thrombotic occlusion of the aneurysm due to obesity and leg edema. Considering the severe neurological status of the patient, the pseudoaneurysm was followed up without surgical treatment. Dual antiplatelet therapy and direct oral anticoagulant agents were administered. Four weeks after onset, the pseudoaneurysm presented rapid growth, and on the 35th day after onset, it exceeded 15 cm in size and ruptured, causing hemorrhagic shock with massive femoral hematoma. Pseudoaneurysm resection and hematoma removal were performed surgically, and the patient recovered. However, improvement of neurological manifestations was poor and the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days after onset was 5.
Conclusion: A case of giant femoral artery pseudoaneurysm following recanalization therapy for acute ischemic stroke was reported. Pseudoaneurysms at the puncture site can rupture after significant growth. Curative treatment is required without delay.
Objective: Transarterial embolization (TAE) of the cavernous sinus (CS) via a fistula formed in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is the standard for carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs). Depending on the fistula, an adjunctive technique using a balloon or stent is effective. We report a case in which the balloon-assisted technique using the super-compliant balloon catheter “Super-Masamune” was effective.
Case Presentation: A 44-year-old woman who sustained head trauma from a traffic accident 1 month prior presented with diplopia, conjunctival chemosis, and proptosis of the left eye. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed a left CCF with a reflex to the left superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). During TAE with the Super-Masamune assistance, we tightly embolized around the fistula using a small volume of coils and the CCF was obliterated.
Conclusion: The balloon of the Super-Masamune is made of a styrene-based elastomer, which has excellent compliance. Therefore, it is possible to reduce the volume of coils because the balloon is in close contact with the ICA or fistula. This may reduce the incidence of postoperative cranial nerve palsy and cost of treatment materials.
Objective: We report the usefulness of the adjunctive technique using a 3.4-Fr TACTICS catheter, which is a distal access catheter (DAC) for coil embolization.
Methods: Patients who underwent coil embolization with an adjunctive technique using a TACTICS catheter between October 2018 and May 2019 were retrospectively analyzed.
Results: In all, 64 aneurysms in 51 patients were treated. Among them, 18 aneurysms in 15 patients (4 ruptured aneurysms and 14 unruptured aneurysms) required an adjunctive technique using a TACTICS catheter. The methods of embolization were the double catheter technique (DCT) for five aneurysms, stent-assisted coiling (SAT) for seven, DCT + SAC for one, and balloon-assisted technique (BAT) for five aneurysms. Aneurysms were located in the anterior communicating artery (Acom A) in three cases, distal anterior cerebral artery (dACA) in one, middle cerebral artery (MCA) in five, internal carotid artery (ICA) in six, basilar artery (BA) in one, and vertebral artery (VA) in two cases. It was easy to access distal intracranial vessels using the TACTICS catheter. In all cases, guiding of the microcatheter, coiling, and stent placement were improved. There were no complications associated with using the TACTICS catheter.
Conclusion: Compared with conventional DACs, distal intracranial vessels were more easily accessed using the TACTICS catheter. A TACTICS catheter is useful because DCT and SAC require sufficient operability of the microcatheter.
Objective: For carotid artery stenosis with a large amount of vulnerable plaque in a wide range, we performed a hybrid surgery combining carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS), and report the results of treatment.
Methods: Surgical treatment for carotid artery stenosis in 216 patients was performed between January 2016 and June 2018. Of these, 15 patients were treated in a hybrid operating room because both CEA and CAS were judged to be risky. We treated these patients with preparation of stenting for remote lesions far from the CEA arterial incision. The perioperative treatment results were retrospectively examined.
Results: Of the 15 patients treated in a hybrid operating room, 10 were stented after CEA. All these cases were treated by retrograde stent placement in the proximal common carotid artery (CCA). Treatment was completed in all patients, and no cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction, or death was observed in the perioperative period. There were no cases of additional neurological events during the follow-up period, but asymptomatic restenosis was observed in one patient.
Conclusion: Hybrid surgery combining CEA and CAS was considered to be an effective treatment for carotid artery stenosis with a large amount of vulnerable plaque.
Objective: Carotid artery stenosis and cerebral aneurism may have different platelet functions and antiplatelet responses because these diseases have different etiologies. In this study, we compared the antiplatelet loading effects prior to endovascular treatment between carotid artery stenosis and unruptured cerebral aneurysm (UCA) patients.
Methods: Nine patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACS), 14 with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis (SCS), and 20 with unruptured cerebral aneurysms were enrolled in this study. Antiplatelet (aspirin + clopidogrel) loading effects prior to endovascular treatment were evaluated using light transmission aggregometry and platelet aggregate detection methods.
Results: Although there are differences in the prevalence of atherosclerosis risk factors, maximum aggregation rates in light transmission aggregometry and platelet aggregation-prone properties were not different in the three disease groups.
Conclusion: Preoperative dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel may be appropriate for both carotid artery stenosis and cerebral aneurism patients even though their conditions and background factors differ.