Background: Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a member of the TRP channel family and is involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes. Accumulating evidence from in vitro studies indicates that TRPV4 has a potential role in liver fibrosis, but its precise role in the pathophysiological development of this condition is unclear. Exogenous interventions and endogenous reactions should be considered. Methods: This study used a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis to investigate the effects of intraperitoneal injection of the novel TRPV4 channel selective agonist GSK1016790A (GSK) and antagonist HC-067047 (HC). Results: As compared with the CCl4 group, collagen fiber deposition and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) levels were markedly higher and hepatic lobule disorganization was worse in the CCl4+GSK group, while collagen fiber deposition was significantly lower and hepatic lobule disorganization was less severe in the CCl4+HC group. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that activation of TRPV4 channels worsens liver fibrosis and that inhibition of TRPV4 channels may alleviate liver fibrosis in vivo.
Background: Intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) might reduce the incidence of injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) during thyroidectomy. Although dislocation of endotracheal tube surface electrodes can lead to false-positive IONM results (loss of signal), the risk factors for dislocation and the effects of muscle relaxants are unclear. Therefore, to identify factors that affect IONM results, we examined the frequency and risk factors for tube dislocation after cervical extension before surgery, the effect of sugammadex administration, and the correlation between IONM results and postoperative RLN palsy. Methods: Thirty-nine patients scheduled for thyroidectomy from October 2016 to April 2017 were enrolled. All patients underwent standard IONM and pre- and postoperative laryngoscopy. Differences in patient characteristics in the tube dislocation group and non-dislocation group, and differences in amplitude during vagal stimulation before and after sugammadex administration, were assessed by the Mann-Whitney test or Fisher's exact test. Results: Tube dislocation occurred in 27 patients (69%). Sterno-cricoid distance was significantly shorter in the dislocation group (n=27) than in the non-dislocation group (n=12) (43.88 [32.2-55.91] mm vs 49.46 [40.66-55.91] mm, respectively; p=0.048). Without sugammadex, amplitude during vagal stimulation was sufficient for monitoring. Nine patients had new-onset RLN palsy, which was transient in all patients. The sensitivity of IONM was 100%, the positive predictive value was 60%, and the negative predictive value was 100%. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that anesthesiologists should use video laryngoscopy to correct tube dislocation and that a rocuronium dose of 0.6 mg/kg, without sugammadex, is adequate for IONM.
Background: We compared the clinical results of a newly modified abductor pollicis longus (APL) suspension arthroplasty with trapeziectomy procedure (modified Thompson procedure) with those of the original APL suspension arthroplasty with trapeziectomy procedure (original Thompson procedure) for treatment of advanced osteoarthritis of the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint and assessed the effectiveness of the modified Thompson procedure for thumb CMC osteoarthritis. Methods: Ten hands of 10 patients (Group 1) were treated with the original Thompson procedure. Twenty hands of 16 patients (Group 2) were treated with the modified Thompson procedure, in which the bone tunnel positions were rearranged for a more dorsoradial passage of the transferred APL. Results: Significant differences between values before and after surgery were noted in thumb palmar and radial abduction angles, pinch power, grip strength, Quick Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire (Quick DASH) score, and visual analog scale (VAS) score. There was no statistically significant difference in thumb palmar abduction angle, pinch power, grip strength, Quick DASH score, or VAS score between Groups 1 and 2. However, range of motion of radial abduction in the thumb was significantly better for patients in Group 2 than for those in Group 1. Conclusions: The modified Thompson procedure is a simple, effective technique that results in greater improvement in thumb radial abduction angle, as compared with the original technique, in patients with advanced thumb CMC osteoarthritis. Additionally, the modified technique is as useful as the original procedure for early restoration of thumb function and pain relief.
We report a case of a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in the remnant pancreas of a 78-year-old man after pancreaticoduodenectomy for acinar cell carcinoma, a relatively rare pancreatic neoplasm. After diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma, subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis was acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas (disease stage IA, pT1, pN0, M0), without regional lymph node invasion. Cancer antigen 19-9 levels gradually increased during the 22 months after surgery, and computed tomography showed two solid tumors, 1.1 and 2.1 cm in diameter, at the site of the remnant pancreas. Endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration revealed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The tumor cells were not immunoreactive for trypsin. Both tumors were diagnosed as PDAC of the remnant pancreas. The patient declined curative resection, and chemoradiotherapy was started as alternative treatment. The patient died 28 months after surgery. Because this is an extremely rare case, additional cases and studies are needed in order to clarify its pathogenesis.
We report a case of metastatic pancreatic-head mucinous carcinoma (with multiple lymph node and bone metastases) and review the relevant literature. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) was useful for diagnosis, and a satisfactory outcome was achieved after systemic chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX followed by resection of the primary lesion as conversion surgery. The patient was a 55-year-old man. Hematological findings included elevated serum tumor marker levels: CEA 12.7 ng/mL, DUPAN-2 400 U/mL. Findings from several imaging modalities and EUS-FNA confirmed a clinicopathological diagnosis of metastatic pancreatic mucinous carcinoma with multiple bone and lymph node metastases. Five courses of modified FOIFIRINOX (m-FFX) were given as systemic chemotherapy, which had an antitumor effect. Subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy and extensive lymph-node dissection were thus performed. Histopathological analysis showed invasive ductal carcinoma, muc (pT3, pN1b, cM1). After surgery, the clinical course was notable for the absence of complications. Tegafur/gimeracil/oteracil (S-1) was started as maintenance adjuvant chemotherapy postoperatively, and no disease progression has been observed at 10 months after surgery.
The indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence method is reportedly useful for intraoperative visualization of hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver cancer. Herein, we report the use of an ICG fluorescence navigation system for laparoscopic hepatectomy. The patient was a 73-year-old man with a surgical history of two laparotomies for hepatocellular carcinoma resection. During follow-up at our hospital, abdominal computed tomography revealed recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in the lateral area of the liver, after which the patient was hospitalized for surgery. His surgical history indicated that adhesions in the abdominal cavity were likely. We scheduled laparoscopic repeat hepatectomy (LRH) with an ICG fluorescence method in which ICG dye was injected intravenously 2 days before surgery. ICG fluorescence was easily detected intraoperatively. The advantages of the present approach are that it induces pneumoperitoneum and, with laparoscopic magnification, enables good visualization of the surgical field for LRH and clear intraoperative identification of the tumor, thus facilitating LRH. Laparoscopic partial resection of the liver (S3) was successfully performed; the operation time was 197 minutes and bleeding volume was 30 mL. Postoperative course was uneventful and he was discharged on postoperative day 10.
We report a case of pneumonitis with alveolar hemorrhage induced by herbal medicines in a 73-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea and an abnormal shadow on a chest radiograph. She had received treatment with numerous drugs, including the herbal medicines Seisin-renshi-in, Chotosan, Rikkunshi-to, and Shakuyakukannzo-to. Chest radiography revealed diffuse ground-glass shadows in both lungs, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was progressively hemorrhagic. A culture of the fluid showed no evidence of microorganisms. Moreover, there were no findings suggestive of rheumatic disease or vasculitides. On the basis of this evidence, we suspected drug-induced diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. She discontinued all medicines and started treatment with corticosteroids. Her respiratory condition and chest radiographic findings improved. The timing of administration and rechallenge with other drugs suggested that the herbal medicines were the causative drugs. The primary concern was Seisin-renshi-in, because it contains Ougon (skullcap; a known cause of pneumonitis) and because a drug lymphocyte stimulation test was positive for Seisin-renshi-in. This is the first report indicating that Seisin-renshi-in may cause diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to herbal medicines is a rare but emergent disorder. Therefore, treating physicians should be aware that it may be caused by herbal medicines, including Seisin-renshi-in.
A 21-year-old man presented with hyperthyroidism and hypokalemia and was treated for thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis caused by Graves' disease. Thyroid function soon normalized but hypokalemia persisted. Laboratory data revealed hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism and metabolic alkalosis consistent with Gitelman Syndrome. The patient was found to have a previously unreported compound heterozygous mutation of T180K and L858H in the SLC12A3 gene, and Gitelman Syndrome was diagnosed. He was started on eplerenone to control serum potassium level. Alternative diagnoses should be considered when electrolyte imbalances persist after disease resolution.
Our previous studies showed that early diagnosis of painful bone metastasis is difficult and requires improvement in the diagnostic accuracy of plain radiography during an initial patient consultation. In this preliminary study, we evaluate the usefulness of educational material used to improve diagnosis of bone metastasis with plain radiography. This study included imaging data from 129 consecutive patients who visited our orthopedic clinic during the period January 2011 through December 2014. First, we prepared a test to measure the reading ability of orthopedic practitioners, after which the educational material was created. Then, the effectiveness of the educational material was verified by having orthopedic trainees take a pre-test and post-test. The test contained plain radiographic data from 12 patients with lesions and 6 without lesions. The educational material included plain radiographic data from 30 patients with typical findings of bone metastasis, as well as diagnostic magnetic resonance images or computed tomography scans, accompanied by a lecture. The accuracy and sensitivity of diagnosis significantly improved after the lecture; however, specificity decreased. Although the educational material was effective for improving the ability of orthopedic trainees to read plain radiographs of bone metastasis, some aspects of the program need to be improved and revised.