Objective: Petrous internal carotid aneurysm (PA) concomitant with a mass lesion and cranial nerve palsy is relatively rare. Flow-diverter stent implantation is now widely used as an alternative treatment for PA. However, alternative treatments sometimes cannot be used because of tortuosity of the carotid artery, allergies to contrast material, and high costs. The outcomes of different treatment methods should therefore be assessed. Here, we review the available literature on treatments for PA. Methods: In a search using the terms "aneurysm", "carotid artery", and "petrous" on PubMed, MEDLINE, and databases such as OvidSP, 221 articles were identified. We also performed a literature review and discuss and compare the causes, symptoms, treatment methods, and clinical outcomes of PA. Results and Conclusions: Onset of secondary aneurysm was generally heralded by bleeding (p<0.001), while onset of primary aneurysm was heralded by cranial nerve deficit (p= 0.0014). Outcomes after treatment of 34 cranial nerve palsies in 25 patients are reported.
This review examines the following aspects of tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TSGCTs): the use of multiple names, the complex relationship between tumor growth pattern and location, the high rate of postoperative recurrence, local invasiveness, use of nonsurgical therapy with molecularly targeted drugs, and best current treatments. This tumor has been referred to by various names, but is now most frequently referred to as TSGCT. TSGCT is classified as localized and diffuse, in accordance with its growth characteristics. Most TSGCTs of the fingers are localized. TSGCT is likely a neoplastic process arising from synovial lining cells, in which tumor cells express the colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) gene. The postoperative recurrence rate of TSGCT is approximately 15%. The intrinsic characteristics of recurrence are not clear, and complete resection of the lesion is still the treatment mainstay. Moreover, TSGCT commonly grows out of a pseudocapsule. Therefore, to perform complete resection of TSGCT, surgery must be performed cautiously after appropriate preparation, by using anesthesia, a tourniquet, surgical loupe, and surgical microscopy. After accurate preoperative diagnosis, meticulous planning by surgeons is necessary. The lesion should be resected along with approximately 1-mm of healthy tissue at the adhesion site. In addition, because satellite lesions might be present near the tumor, careful dissection and observation of the color of surrounding tissue are important. International clinical trials of CSF1 receptor inhibitors for TSGCT treatment are ongoing.
Background: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) aims to correct the rotation, as well as the alignment and articulation, of the osteoarthritic knee. We hypothesized that, in addition to improving knee kinematics, TKA affects hip rotational movement. The objective of this study was to evaluate variation in lower extremity alignment and hip rotational range of motion (ROM) after TKA. Methods: A total of 47 patients (53 knees) with primary varus knee osteoarthritis who were scheduled for primary TKA at our center were enrolled. Hip rotational ROM was measured with the patient in supine position with 90° flexion of the hip and knee before and 3 weeks after TKA. Plain radiography and computed tomography were used to compare variations in tibial axis alignment and femoral axis alignment after bone resection, which was defined as changes in the joint lines of the distal femur and the proximal tibia. Results: Average internal ROM, and the sum of internal and external hip rotational ROM, increased significantly; however, external hip rotational ROM did not significantly differ after TKA. Imaging findings showed that the axis of the lower leg externally rotated by 2.5°, with a 4° internal rotation of the distal femur and a 6.5° correction of the varus deformity. Conclusion: TKA changed the neutral position of hip rotational movement and increased hip rotational ROM.
Background: Spatial dispersion of atrial activation is a cause of postoperative atrial fibrillation (PoAF) after cardiac surgery. This study evaluated whether temporal dispersion of atrial activation causes PoAF after surgery in a clinical setting. Methods: Nineteen patients were enrolled. Postoperative atrial activation was evaluated by 24-hour Holter electrocardiography, with atrial pacing wires on the right atrium, for 5 days after cardiac surgery. No patient received antiarrhythmic drugs, including beta-blockers. The cycle length of 15 continuous atrial beats was measured at 4 time points: (i) earlier than 12 hours before PoAF, as a control, (ii) just before PoAF onset, (iii) during PoAF, and (iv) just before cessation of PoAF. Inhomogeneity of atrial activation was quantified by using the variation coefficient for a cycle length of 15 atrial beats during each phase. Results: The median inhomogeneity index of atrial activation (interquartile range) was 0.102 (0.046-0.136) in controls, 0.943 (0.582-1.610) just before PoAF onset (vs. control; p=0.009), 0.966 (0.631-1.117) during PoAF, and 0.471 (0.138-0.645) just before cessation of PoAF. Conclusions: Dispersion of atrial activation significantly increased just before PoAF onset. Temporal dispersion of atrial activation is a precursory variation of PoAF.
Background: Most surveillance programs for postoperative infection focus on surgical site infections (SSI). However, postoperative remote infections are of emerging clinical importance. Using data from a multicenter survey administered to patients who underwent gastrointestinal surgery, we investigated the incidence of SSI and remote infection after colorectal surgery. Methods: From September 2015 through March 2016, 1,724 patients underwent colorectal surgery in 28 affiliated centers in Japan. We retrospectively recorded patient age, sex, surgical site, surgical approach, wound classification, performance status at discharge, and postoperative infection status. Results: Postoperative infection was noted in 236 (13.7%) patients; 150 and 86 patients underwent colon and rectal surgeries, respectively (incidence of postoperative infection: 13.7% and 14.8%). The incidence of postoperative infection was significantly lower after laparoscopic surgery than after open surgery, in colon and rectal surgery (p < 0.001). Among patients with postoperative infections, 211 (89.4%) had a single infection and 25 (10.6%) had multiple infections. Among patients with a single postoperative infection, SSI and remote infection occurred in 143 (60.6%) and 68 (28.8%) patients, respectively. The most common multiple postoperative infections were "incisional and organ/space SSIs" and "organ/space SSI and bacteremia of unknown origin" (n = 3 each). Conclusions: This study revealed the prevalence distributions for postoperative SSI and remote infections. Because of the substantial effect of remote infections on patient quality of life and the associated social burden, prospective periodic surveillance for SSI and remote infection is necessary for careful evaluation and prevention.
Background: Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A streptococcus (GAS), is one of the most common bacterial pathogens in children. GAS can cause such nonserious and noninvasive diseases as pharyngitis and skin infection, as well as serious, invasive diseases like streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. One factor that makes GAS pathogenic is the type-specific M protein on its cell surface. To identify emm types and their characteristics, we previously examined GAS strains isolated from children with noninvasive infections at our hospital. The present study was conducted 8 years later, for comparison. Methods: The 23 participants were inpatients and outpatients at Nippon Medical School Tama Nagayama Hospital during 2016 and 2017. A pharyngeal swab specimen was obtained from each child, and genes encoding M proteins were amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Results: emm type analysis identified emm1 in 11 of the 23 strains and emm12 in 4. Three group G streptococcus (GGS) strains carried M-like protein genes. Conclusions: The predominant emm type was emm12 in our previous report and emm1 in this study. This study also identified 3 GGS strains among the isolates, which carried either the stg245, stg6795, or stg840 M-like protein gene. One GAS strain carried stg485, a gene associated with GGS rather than GAS.
Background: To restore neutral limb alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the procedure usually starts with removing osteophytes in varus osteoarthritic knees. However, the exact effect on alignment correction is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of osteophyte removal alone during TKA for varus knees on correction of limb alignment on the coronal plane. Methods: Fifteen knees with medial osteoarthritis and varus malalignment scheduled for TKA were studied. After registration in a navigation system, each knee was tested at maximum extension, and at 30, 40, and 60 degrees of flexion, before and after osteophyte removal. External loads of 10 N·m valgus torque at each angle and in both states were applied. Later, the widths of the resected osteophytes were measured. Results: The average preoperative hip-knee-ankle angle was -14.2 degrees. The average width of osteophytes was 7.6 mm in the femur and 5.3 mm in the tibia. Angle corrections after osteophyte removal were 3.4 degrees at maximum extension, 3.4 degrees at 30 degrees flexion, and 3.6 degrees at 60 degrees flexion; the difference was significant for all angles. There was a positive correlation between osteophyte width and the degree of angle correction at 30 degrees. Conclusion: At 30 degrees of knee flexion, osteophyte width was correlated with the degree of angle correction on the coronal plane in TKA. The degree of angle correction per 1 mm of width of removed osteophytes was 0.4 degrees.
Introduction: To increase survival rates of patients with severe trauma from road traffic accidents, Japan launched the D-Call Net (DCN) system, which utilizes advanced automatic collision notification technology to dispatch doctors by helicopter. The DCN system began in November 2015 and, as of October 2019, has dispatched doctors 4 times. Cases: Case 1-Canceled because trauma was mild. Case 2-Doctor made contact with 2 patients with moderate trauma 29 minutes earlier than would have occurred conventionally. This was the first case in the world to use automotive engineering data to dispatch a doctor to a patient. Case 3-An accident involving 3 severely injured patients activated DCN, enabling doctor-patient contact 20 minutes earlier than would have been possible conventionally. Case 4-DCN was ineffective. Discussion: According to 2008 data from Chiba Prefecture, in accidents where victims sustain severe trauma, the interval from accident occurrence to hospital arrival was 67 minutes, even when doctors were dispatched by air ambulance (Doctor-Heli [DH]). Use of accident information for faster doctor dispatch effectively improved survival rates. An algorithm was developed to use accident information to assess trauma severity (severity probability). DCN dispatches doctors by using data, including information on accident site and severity probability, which are sent to smartphones of doctors, thereby reducing the interval from accident to DH request by approximately 17 minutes. DCN is the first system in the world to use automotive engineering information for faster doctor dispatch to traffic accident sites. The system is crucial for improving survival rates and mitigating the aftereffects of traffic accidents.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in coagulopathy, which increases mortality risk. The Clinical Randomization of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Head injury (CRASH)-2 and CRASH-3 trials confirmed that tranexamic acid (TXA) was effective after trauma. Herein, we report a unique coagulation change in a patient with TBI given TXA after point-of-care assessment. Coagulation functions were impaired on admission. At 1 hour after TXA administration, clotting time was further prolonged in the extrinsic coagulation pathway but shortened in the intrinsic coagulation system. The results of a test of the total thrombus-formation analysis system showed improved blood clot formation ability. Intrinsic coagulation and clot formation improved after TXA administration in a TBI patient with coagulopathy.
Ulnar-sided wrist pain is common among athletes who subject their wrists to forceful rotational movements. Injury to the numerous complex structures in the ulnar wrist, including the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon and triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), can result in ulnar-sided wrist pain. Although differentiating between ECU tendinitis and TFCC injury is necessary, ECU tendon disorders and TFCC injury occasionally occur concurrently. Subluxation or dislocation of the ECU tendon is rare but may cause symptoms in athletes subjecting their wrists to forceful rotational movements. We present a case of recurrent dislocation of the ECU tendon and ulnar-sided TFCC injury in a 21-year-old male university-league ice hockey player. He initially underwent ECU stabilization; however, his ulnar wrist pain persisted, which adversely affected his athletic performance. He underwent additional surgery to repair the TFCC, which led to definitive resolution of his symptoms and resulted in his return to competitive performance 3 months postoperatively. Treatment of symptomatic dislocation of the ECU remains controversial. In our patient, recurrent dislocation of the ECU tendon with concurrent ulnar-sided TFCC injury resulted in ulnar-sided wrist pain. Combined reconstruction of the tendon's subsheath, using the extensor retinaculum, and repair of the TFCC injury was required for full recovery of his athletic performance.
Objective: Little is known about COVID-19 patients who have not traveled to infected areas or had direct contact with infected persons. This report describes the clinical features of 28 such patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Methods: Data on clinical characteristics during hospitalization were collected. Results: Epidemiological exposures were investigated among patients reporting no travel to infected areas or direct contact with a case-patient. Patients presented with various symptoms, increased levels of inflammatory markers, and consolidation or ground-glass opacification on computed tomography scans. Conclusions: The present report contributes critical information on the clinical presentation of COVID-19 patients without typical epidemiological exposures.