日本神経回路学会誌
Online ISSN : 1883-0455
Print ISSN : 1340-766X
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8 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の22件中1~22を表示しています
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  • J. A. Scott Kelso
    8 巻 (2001) 4 号 p. 125-130
    公開日: 2011/01/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    One of the biggest puzzles in trying to understand ourselves is how we (and our brains) make decisions or choices. What kind of thing is the brain that it can make choices? If choice is a function of the large-scale activity of the brain, what form do these large-scale spatiotemporal patterns of brain activity take and how are they related to what people do? How are localized regions of the brain coordinated so as to support large-scale network activity? Fundamentally speaking, why is one kind of pattern of behavior selected over another? What are the principles and mechanisms? Choice implies the creation (and annihilation) of information. How is information created so that it may modulate, and be modulated by, the dynamics of the brain? These are big questions, so let's treat them systematically, albeit briefly. There are good reasons to believe that the answers may lie within Coordination Dynamics, a line of scientific enquiry that aims to understand—through theory and experiment—how patterns of coordination form, persist and change in living things. Coordination is not just matter in motion. It refers to the functional ordering of parts and processes in space and time. Coordination Dynamics is unique because it contains two coexistent aspects, a self-organizing, or ‘undirected’ aspect and an informational, or ‘directed’ aspect. The former deals with collective or cooperative effects that arise spontaneously when ordinary matter takes on novel properties, as in lasers and superconductors, or when new forms of organization among water molecules arise as in the weather (Cross and Hohenberg, 19931); Haken, 19772); Nicolis and Prigogine, 19773)). The human brain and the behavior it produces has been demonstrated to exploit these self-organizing, cooperative effects, an intriguing finding in its own right (Sect. 2.0). The latter, ‘directed’ aspect of coordination dynamics reveals how information is created de novo and how information guides, directs, modulates and is modified by self-organizing dynamics. “Directed” terms like “plans,” “programs,” “intentions” and so forth, rather than reified are embraced by metastable coordination dynamics. Metastable Coordination Dynamics means that there is no such thing as perfect order or randomness in the way natural systems are coordinated. Only tendencies toward order and randomness exist in spacetime. These tendencies arise from the coexistence of intrinsic properties of individual parts and the essentially nonlinear coupling between them (Sect. 5.0).
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  • 星野 修, 樫森 与志喜
    8 巻 (2001) 4 号 p. 131-138
    公開日: 2011/01/31
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 村田 勉, 柳田 敏雄
    8 巻 (2001) 4 号 p. 139-146
    公開日: 2011/01/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    視覚的意識のダイナミクスを明らかにするため, 人間被験者における知覚闘争の生起時間の統計的分布を精密に解析したところ, 意識にのぼる見えの切替りの背後に量子的(不連続)な脳の状態とその間の確率的遷移過程が存在することがわかった. その神経メカニズムのてがかりを得るため, 機能的磁気共鳴法により脳の関連賦活部位を調べたところ, 大脳皮質の広域的ネットワークが関わっていることがわかった. 統合された知覚像が意識されるために, システムとしての脳がいかに動作すべきなのかという点についてもダイナミクスの観点から議論したい.
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  • 浅田 博, 福田 淳
    8 巻 (2001) 4 号 p. 147-152
    公開日: 2011/01/31
    ジャーナル フリー
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