Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Online ISSN : 1881-7742
Print ISSN : 0301-4800
ISSN-L : 0301-4800
Current issue
Displaying 1-12 of 12 articles from this issue
Review
  • James PIETRIS
    2022 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 151-154
    Published: June 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Glaucoma is a collection of irreversible optic neuropathies which, if left untreated, lead to severe visual field loss. These diseases are a leading cause of blindness across the globe and are estimated to affect approximately 80 million people, particularly women and people of Asian descent (Quigley HA, Broman AT. 2006. Br J Ophthalmol 90: 262–267). This represents a major burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the potential of nicotinamide (vitamin B3) as a novel option in the management of glaucoma. This review aims to analyse the currently available literature to determine whether there is evidence of an association between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and glaucomatous optic neuropathy, and whether nicotinamide has the potential to prevent or reverse these effects. The literature showed a strong connection between reduced NAD+ levels and retinal ganglion cell dysfunction through multiple different studies. There is also evidence of the positive effect of nicotinamide supplementation on retinal ganglion cell function in models of mouse glaucoma and in a study involving humans. Based on the literature findings, a recommendation has been made that more research into the efficacy, appropriate dosing, and potential side effects of nicotinamide supplementation is needed before it can be definitively determined whether it is appropriate for widespread prophylactic and therapeutic use against glaucoma in humans.

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  • Akinori YAEGASHI, Takashi KIMURA, Takumi HIRATA, Akiko TAMAKOSHI
    2022 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 155-161
    Published: June 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the association between green tea consumption and depression symptom risk, using subgroup analyses concerning study design, geographical region of study, adjustment factors, age, cut-off for the highest consumption category, and depression assessment methods applied. We used PubMed to search for relevant literature. The inclusion criteria were studies that (a) investigated this association as a primary or secondary outcome; (b) published in English; (c) assessed and reported hazard ratios or odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for depression symptoms, or included sufficient information to allow their calculation; (d) included at least two groups differentiated based on green tea consumption (e.g., high and low); (e) reported the prevalence of depression symptoms in each group; and (f) reported the sample size for each group. Eight articles were found to meet all criteria. The results indicated that high green tea consumption is inversely associated with depression symptoms. The pooled OR was 0.66 (95% CI 0.58–0.74), and significant heterogeneity was not observed. Subgroup analysis showed that study design impacted results (cohort study [one study]: OR=0.29, 95% CI=0.04–2.14; cross-sectional study [seven studies]: OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.59–0.75). These findings suggest that green tea consumption reduces the risk of depression symptoms. This association was also observed in the cohort study included, but the results in which did not reach the significant level. Therefore, further cohort studies are needed to confirm the potential causal relationship in this regard.

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  • Hitoshi OZAWA, Taiki MIYAZAWA, Gregor Carpentero BURDEOS, Teruo MIYAZA ...
    2022 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 162-171
    Published: June 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In the history of modern nutritional science, understanding antioxidants is one of the major topics. In many cases, food-derived antioxidants have π conjugate or thiol group in their molecular structures because π conjugate stabilizes radical by its delocalization and two thiol groups form a disulfide bond in its antioxidative process. In recent years, antioxidant peptides have received much attention because for their ability to scavenge free radicals, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, chelation of transition metal ions, as well as their additional nutritional value. Among them, dipeptides are attracting much interest as post-amino acids, which have residues in common with amino acids, but also have different physiological properties and functions from those of amino acids. Especially, dipeptides containing moieties of several amino acid (tryptophan, tyrosine, histidine, cysteine, and methionine) possess potent antioxidant activity. This review summarizes previous details of structural property, radical scavenging activity, and biological activity of antioxidant dipeptide. Hopefully, this review will help provide a new insight into the study of the biological functions of antioxidant dipeptides.

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Regular Paper
  • Naoko TSUGAWA, Akiko KUWABARA, Honami OGASAWARA, Mayu NISHINO, Kimie N ...
    2022 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 172-180
    Published: June 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Avoidance of sunlight and self-restraint due to the COVID-19 pandemic may contribute to reduced vitamin D status. This study provides comparable data on vitamin D status in Japanese young women and assesses the effect of lifestyle, including changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, on vitamin D status. In study 1, 39 young healthy Japanese women aged 21–25 y were recruited from May 2016–June 2017. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration and diet and lifestyle information were obtained from participants each month (n=124). In study 2, using the same parameters as study 1, young women aged 21–23 y (n=10) were recruited in September 2020. In the results of study 1, we found the frequencies of vitamin D deficiency (25OHD<20 ng/mL) in spring, summer, fall, and winter were 90.5%, 62.5%, 81.5%, and 91.3%, respectively. The substantial difference of serum 25OHD concentration was obtained in spring (Δ3.6 ng/mL) and summer (Δ5.1 ng/mL) depending on the frequency of sunscreen use (0–2 d/wk, 3–7 d/wk). In study 2, serum 25OHD concentration in September 2020 was extremely lower than in September 2016 (13.2 ng/mL vs. 21.7 ng/mL). The number of days spent outside in 2020 decreased drastically compared with 2019. In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency was highly common in Japanese women in their early 20s, and frequent sunscreen use contributed to low vitamin D status. Moreover, because the decrease in days outside due to the COVID-19 pandemic obviously resulted in a decline in vitamin D status, both appropriate sunbathing and increased dietary vitamin D intake are recommended to young women.

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  • Jie WANG, Xinliang LI, Yongyi GAN, Tianxing FAN, Jing YANG, Fang RAO, ...
    2022 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 181-188
    Published: June 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    We aimed to assess the difference and agreement between the CL-series Vitamin D Total assay (Mindray), which was a kind of chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in children. We compared the 25(OH)D concentrations of 92 children using the CLIA and LC-MS/MS. Paired samples t-test was used to compare the two groups. Linear regression was used to show the correlation between CLIA and LC-MS/MS. The difference and bias between 2 methods were revealed in Bland-Altman plot. Agreement in classification of deficiency between CLIA and LC-MS/MS was assessed using Cohen’s Kappa. p value<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Using Shapiro-Wilk Test to assess whether the data follows a normal distribution. Using 95% children’s serum 25(OH)D concentrations by LC-MS/MS as the reference interval. The regression equation was CLIA=1.185×LC-MS/MS−3.328. The fitness adjusted r2 was 0.589. The CLIA showed positive bias compared to LC-MS/MS, p<0.05, bias=(1.94±16.56) ng/mL. Cohen’s Kappa=0.53, p<0.001. The agreement of 2 methods in diagnosing “deficiency” was good. According to Shapiro-Wilk Test, the data followed a normal distribution (W=0.99). The reference interval of children’s serum 25(OH)D concentrations by LC-MS/MS was 11.35–44.57 ng/mL. In measuring 25(OH)D concentration of children, CLIA represented higher levels than LC-MS/MS. The two methods were consistent in diagnosing vitamin D deficiency. The reference interval of children’s serum 25(OH)D concentrations by LC-MS/MS was 11.35–44.57 ng/mL in our area in summer.

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  • Toshiki MAEDA, Yuka HAMADA, Shunsuke FUNAKOSHI, Rena HOSHI, Masayoshi ...
    2022 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 189-203
    Published: June 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Little is known about the optimal daily magnesium (Mg) intake for individuals with high levels of physical activity. The aim of this study was to clarify the optimal dietary Mg intake for people with high levels of physical activity in a scoping review. In this review, we searched MEDLINE and Japan Medical Abstracts Society for studies published up to May 31, 2020. We conducted two searches, one for studies using gold standard measurement methods such as the balance method and factorial calculation (Search 1), and the other for studies using estimation from daily food intake (Search 2). We also performed a meta-analysis of studies that compared the Mg intake among physically active people with the Mg intake among controls. After the primary and secondary screening, 31 studies were included in the final review. All of the included studies examined professional or recreational athletes. We found no studies that examined the optimal intake of Mg using gold standard measurement methods. The Mg intake among physically active individuals was below the recommended dietary allowance in most studies. In five studies that conducted meta-analyses, physically active individuals had significantly higher intakes of Mg than controls, although these levels were still below the recommended dietary allowance. The present review revealed that evidence regarding the optimal daily magnesium intake is currently scarce, and further studies are needed.

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  • Tsubasa KONDO, Takashi UEBANSO, Natsuki ARAO, Takaaki SHIMOHATA, Kazua ...
    2022 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 204-212
    Published: June 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    Taste receptor type 1 member 3 (T1R3) recognize umami or sweet tastes and also contributes type 2 immunity and autophagy in small intestine and muscle cells, respectively. Since imbalance of type 1 and type 2 immunity and autophagy affect intestinal bowel disease (IBD), we hypothesized that T1R3 have a potential role in the incidence and progression of colitis. In the present study, we investigated whether genetic deletion of T1R3 impacted aggravation of DSS-induced colitis in mice. We found that T1R3-KO mice showed reduction in colon damage, including reduced inflammation and colon shrinking relative to those of WT mice following DSS treatment. mRNA expression of tight junction components, particularly claudin1 was significantly lower in T1R3-KO mice with trend to lower inflammation related gene mRNA expression in colon. Other parameters, such as response to microbial stimuli in splenic lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages, gut microbiota composition, and expression of autophagy-related proteins, were similar between WT and KO mice. Together, these results indicated that deletion of T1R3 has a minor role in intestinal inflammation induced by DSS-induced acute colitis in mice.

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  • Mikiko KISHI, Yuki IDENO, Kazue NAGAI, Jung Su LEE, Shosuke SUZUKI, Ku ...
    2022 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 213-220
    Published: June 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    The use of dietary supplements has become a common way to maintain good health. This study evaluated the status of supplement use and supplement user characteristics among participants from the Japan Nurses’ Health Study, which comprised a cohort of Japanese female nursing professionals. A questionnaire survey covering the use of vitamins and supplements was conducted. Supplements were classified according to their constituents and formulations. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the characteristics of supplement users. Results were as follows. There were 4,017 supplement users (34.4% of 11,665 valid answers). The supplement types used were: vitamins (n=2,655), minerals (n=1,121), amino acids and proteins (n=139), botanical products (n=714), animal by-products (n=849), herbal medicines (n=152), nutritional drinks (n=19), others (n=117), and unclassified supplements (n=320). Logistic regression analyses showed that supplement use was significantly associated with age and body mass index, and there were significantly higher proportions of supplement users among pregnant women, black tea drinkers, soy milk consumers, and lactobacillus beverage drinkers. In conclusion, the overall percentage of supplement users was 34.4%. A high prevalence of supplement use was observed among older, non-obese, and pregnant participants, and those who paid more attention to their health. The prevalence of supplement users was significantly higher among those who habitually drank black tea, soy milk, and lactobacillus beverages, suggesting participants used supplements to maintain their health or prevent diseases based on high health consciousness.

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  • Fumiko OKAZAKI, Keiko MOMMA, Yuki HIRAKAWA, Natsuki KAWAI, Yukie YAMAG ...
    2022 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 221-227
    Published: June 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    In this study, monoclonal antibodies against two major fruit allergens—gibberellin-regulated protein (GRP) and lipid transfer protein (LTP)—were established. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the quantification of peach GRP and LTP were constructed using these antibodies. Both ELISAs reacted with the respective antigens when heated at 100ºC for 20 min, but not when reduced with sodium sulfite, indicating that GRP and LTP are heat-stable, while disulfide bonds play an important role in their native steric structures. GRP and LTP in peaches and peach-containing foods were quantified by these ELISAs. In both cases, there were few differences among peach cultivars normally available on the market; however, concentrations were higher when the peach was ripe. GRP was localized in the pulp of the peach, while LTP was present in the peel. They could be quantified in peach-containing beverages, as well as in dried and canned peaches. GRP in Japanese apricots could also be determined using this ELISA, as its amino acid sequence is the same as that of peach GRP. Then, high concentrations of GRP were detected in umeboshi, a traditional Japanese pickled apricot. Peach leaves were found to have a high LTP content, accordingly, LTP was also observed in lotions containing peach leaf extract. The ability to quantitatively detect GRP and LTP in this study will, therefore, contribute to the improvement of component-resolved diagnoses and quality of life in patients allergic to peaches.

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  • Meng YANG, Jing WANG
    2022 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 228-235
    Published: June 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS

    Previous studies have revealed that Berberine (BBR) had therapeutic effects on Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism of BBR in the treatment of AD is unclear. The study was to investigate whether berberine ameliorates cognitive disorder in AD by regulating on GSK3β/PGC-1α signaling pathway. APP/PS1 mice were treated with BBR (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg) for 4 mo, and the cognitive function of mice was tested by Morris water maze. The levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in hippocampus of mice were detected by ELISA kits. The damage of neuronal in hippocampal CA1 was detected by Nissl staining. The tau and GSK3β protein were detected by western blot. The results showed that BBR treatment obviously improved spatial cognitive function of APP/PS1 mice. Meanwhile, the pro-inflammatory cytokines were decreased in hippocampus by the administration of BBR. Additionally, BBR significantly alleviated neuronal damage and reduced the levels of hyperphosphorylated tau at sites of Thr205 and Thr231 in hippocampus. Importantly, BBR inhibited the activity of GSK3β and increased the expression of PGC-1α. Consequently, our results demonstrates that BBR could improve the cognitive function by inhibiting the tau hyperphosphorylation and neuroinflammation. These beneficial effects of BBR may be attributed to the regulation of GSK3β/PGC-1α signaling pathway in APP/PS1 mice. These findings reveal a vital role for GSK3β/PGC-1α signaling pathway in retarding cognitive disorder, indicating that PGC-1α might be a potential target for the treatment of AD.

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Note
  • Yuji IWAOKA, Misaki FUKUSHIMA, Hideyuki ITO, Takeru KOGA, Naoaki KAWAH ...
    2022 Volume 68 Issue 3 Pages 236-239
    Published: June 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: June 30, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
    Supplementary material

    We previously reported that 2-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-6-O-octanoyl-L-ascorbic acid, having a C8 straight acyl chain, at a concentration of 100 μM remarkably enhanced nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells after being metabolized to L-ascorbic acid (AA) as an active form by esterase and α-glucosidase. In this study, to examine the structure-activity relationship of 6-O-substituted AA derivatives with a C8 straight acyl chain for neurite outgrowth-promoting activity, we synthesized AA derivatives 14 and compared their activities for promoting NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. AA derivatives 14 showed neurite outgrowth-enhancing activity at 100 μM, while AA derivative 2 also showed the enhancing activity at 3 μM. Furthermore, AA derivative 2 as well as AA enhanced NGF-induced neurite outgrowth after being incorporated into PC12 cells via sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter as an anion transporter. The results suggested that AA derivative 2 has neurite outgrowth-enhancing activity in its intact form at a low concentration (3 μM) and that AA derivatives 14 showed their activities in the form of AA, a metabolite of these derivatives, at a higher concentration (100 μM).

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