Sub endothelial infarcts leads to non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Proinflammatory cytokines are raised in serum, the severity of which is a poor prognostic sign. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among patients of ACS. Vitamin D has immunomodulatory roles having effects on various aspects of inflammation. A total of 40 patients were divided into experimental (n=20) and control (n=20) groups. Experimental group was given single dose of vitamin D 200,000 IU. They were assessed for baseline C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α levels by using sandwich ELISA technique. Four months after intervention resampling was done for the same parameters. Findings were expressed as mean±SD. Independent sample t-test was used to compare effect of vitamin D intervention between control group and intervention group. p-value of ≤0.05 was considered to be significant. The serum C-reactive protein showed significant reduction (p=0.028*) after intervention with vitamin D. Serum interleukin-6 (p=0.848), tumor necrosis factor-α (p=0.20) were decreased non-significantly in experimental as compared to the control group. It was concluded that a single large dose of vitamin D was able to reduce the C-reactive protein in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients while non-significant reductions in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α were observed.
This study aims to examine whether low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations are correlated with increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a Chinese population. The present prospective cohort study included 5,543 participants aged 40–75 y old and is free of diabetes at baseline in Lanzhou city, China. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured. T2D incidence was defined based on obtained results from oral glucose tolerance tests or a self-reported previous diagnosis of diabetes by healthcare professionals. The association between baseline serum 25(OH)D concentrations and incident T2D was investigated using Cox proportional hazards model and restricted cubic spline. Of 5,543 participants (1,433 men and 4,110 women) followed for an average period of 3.9 y, 239 (4.3%) developed diabetes. No significant difference in serum 25(OH)D concentrations was found between individuals who developed diabetes and those who did not (p>0.05). Furthermore, serum 25(OH)D quartiles were not associated with T2D incidence (HR 1.33, 95% CI: 0.89–1.97, p=0.18) after adjusting for body mass index (BMI) and other potential confounders, as well as in subgroups classified with sex (men, women), glucose status (normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes), and BMI (<25 kg/m2, ≥25 kg/m2). The lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations are not associated to a higher risk of incident T2D in the present Chinese cohort after adjusting for BMI and other numerous potential confounding factors.
Vitamin D deficiency is common in chronic liver diseases, it may increase the severity of the diseases. However, studies on the potential role of vitamin D in hepatitis B virus (HBV) related end stage liver disease are still limited. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with different stages of chronic HBV infection and explore whether vitamin D deficiency can be established as an index of severity and prognosticator of disease progression. Serum 25(OH)D3 levels were measured in a cohort of 363 patients with chronic HBV infection. Biochemical parameters, the alpha fetoprotein level, HBV DNA load, hepatitis B surface antigen level, and hepatitis B early antigen level were tested. The mean 25(OH)D3 level was significantly lower in patients with chronic HBV-related liver disease than in healthy controls. Overall, 74.9% of patients had 25(OH)D3 deficiency. The 25(OH)D3 level was significantly positively correlated with the albumin level. In total, 77.6% (121/156) of patients with cirrhosis had vitamin D deficiency. The 25(OH)D3 level significantly decreased as the Child–Pugh classification increased in severity. The 25(OH)D3 level was negatively correlated with the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score and low 25(OH)D3 concentrations were significantly associated with high MELD score and mortality in patients with liver failure. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in patients with chronic HBV infection. Severe vitamin D deficiency is strongly related to liver dysfunction and disease severity in the cirrhosis and liver failure patients.
Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body and has a broad range of plasticity, undergoing atrophy in response to aging or disease and hypertrophy in response to nutritional supplements or exercise. Loss of skeletal muscle mass and force increases the risk of falls, impairs mobility, and leads to reduced quality of life. In a previous study, we demonstrated that taking in Alaska pollock protein (APP) for only 7 d increased the gastrocnemius muscle mass in rats. This study was conducted to identify hypertrophic myofibers and analyze how hypertrophy occurs within them. Twenty male rats were randomly divided into two groups and administered a diet of casein or APP for 7 d. The expression of each myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform in a cross-sectional area was then measured. MyHC IIb and IIx isoforms exhibited hypertrophic features in the gastrocnemius muscles of the APP-fed rats. Furthermore, comprehensive proteomic analyses were conducted to identify changes in protein expression due to muscle hypertrophy. Our results, evaluated by pathway analyses, indicated that the activity of the growth factor signaling pathway was significantly impacted by APP consumption. Moreover, APP could promote protein synthesis by activating the protein kinase B/mechanistic target of the rapamycin signaling pathway, which is also promoted by exercise.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been increasing rapidly in Vietnam as well as world-wide. One of the major causes of the condition is low fiber intake. It is difficult to eat large amounts of vegetables every day to reach a sufficient amount of fiber but Textured Soybean Protein is rich in fiber. The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of Textured Soybean Protein consumption on T2DM patients. In this randomized controlled trial, 47 T2DM patients were divided into an intervention group (n=24) and a control group (n=23). The intervention group were asked to consume 40 g Textured Soybean Protein in 2 dishes for 4 wk. The control group continued their usual diet. Fasting blood samples were drawn before and after intervention to measure fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fructosamine, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (T-C), and triglycerides (TG). A 3-day food record was conducted at 1 wk before (baseline) and at the last week (final) of the intervention period. In the Textured Soybean Protein consumption group, there was a significant decrease in fructosamine (363±86 μmol/L to 347±82 μmol/L, p=0.03), T-C (5.2±0.9 mmol/L to 4.8±0.8 mmol/L, p=0.02) and TG (3.5±2.2 mmol/L to 2.8±2.0 mmol/L, p=0.02). Total energy intake in the two groups did not change significantly. There was a shift in the dietary pattern of the Textured Soybean Protein consumption group; lipid intake showed a significant decrease (p=0.001) and fiber intake increased by 6 g (p<0.001). The consumption of Textured Soybean Protein in the diet could have favorable effects in improving glycemic and lipid concentrations in T2DM patients.
Muscle mass and strength decrease with aging; however, habitual exercise can maintain muscle health. β-Hydroxy-β-methyl butyrate calcium (HMB) and black ginger (BG) improve muscle protein metabolism and energy production. Combining these two molecules, which have similar effects, may have a synergistic effect. Senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) is a useful model of muscle aging. Therefore, we explored how the combination of habitual exercise, HMB, and BG affected muscle aging. We used 28-wk-old (28w) SAMP8 mice divided into six groups: 28 wk (28w), 44 wk (44w, Con), exercise (Ex), Ex+BG, Ex+HMB, and Ex+BG+HMB (Ex+Comb). Mice were required to run on a treadmill for 16 wk for 5 d per week. In 28w and 44w mice, grip strength tests and dissection were conducted. Muscle weight was measured, and qPCR and immunoblotting were conducted. Muscle mass and strength were declined in the 44w group. Exercise with HMB or BG alone had no effect, whereas muscle mass and strength were augmented in the Ex+Comb group. Similarly, levels of mitochondrial function- and biogenesis-related genes were increased. Autophagy-related protein (Atg3, 7, 16L1 and Beclin1) were altered in the Ex+Comb group. These results suggest that Ex+Comb affects autophagy. Overall, the combination of habitual exercise and HMB+BG may enhance muscle mass and strength by affecting the mitochondrial and autophagy systems in SAMP8.
The food quotient (FQ), which is the rate of macronutrient composition calculated from daily meals, can equal the respiratory quotient over a long term. The FQ is needed to estimate the total energy expenditure (TEE) in doubly labeled water studies. Usually, dietary records (DR) are used for dietary assessment in clinical nutritional studies; however, the DR method’s disadvantage is that it takes time to calculate the results. In comparison, the food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) method is a simple and quick way to calculate results. This study aimed to assess the FQ in Japanese runners, and to compare the two dietary assessment methods, DR and FFQ, to examine whether FFQ is useful in calculating the FQ in healthy young adults and runner. The study consisted of 27 runners and 22 healthy young adults. The participants recorded and took pictures all their meals for 1 wk and provided the FFQ for the same week. The FQ was calculated using the proportions of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and alcohol. There were no significant differences between the FQs of the runners 0.867 (male: 0.873, female: 0.863) and the healthy young adults 0.871 (male: 0.875, female: 0.867) according to the DR methods. There were no differences in the FQs between DR and FFQ methods for all groups. A significant correlation between the FQs (r=0.502, p<0.01), estimated using the DR, and the FQs estimated using the FFQ was observed. These results suggest that use of the FFQ method can provide comparable data for runners and healthy young adults.
Sesamin and episesamin are the main lignans found in refined sesame oil and have been reported to exert various health benefits. However, the health benefits of these lignans and their molecular mechanisms have not been fully understood. This study evaluated the effects of sesamin, episesamin, and their metabolites on the nuclear bile acid receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4), which regulate gene expression involved in bile acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis. By using two different cell-based luciferase reporter assay systems, we found that sesamin, sesamin metabolites, and some episesamin metabolites inhibited FXR activation driven by a bile acid and a synthesized agonist, and it is suggested that these compounds exert their antagonist activity by competing with the FXR agonists on the ligand-binding domain. Sesamin and its major metabolite SC-1 suppressed the expression of several gluconeogenesis-related genes governed by FXR in HepG2 cells but did not affect the expression level of CYP7A1, the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. Dietary sesamin supplementation (AIN-93G supplemented with 0.5% sesamin) led to the decreased hepatic expression of several gluconeogenesis-related genes and reduced blood glucose levels in mice, without adverse effects on bile acid metabolism. These results shed light on the health benefits of taking sesamin and episesamin.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble molecule, well known for its role in regulating calcium homeostasis in bone. It has become increasingly clear that it also has important effects in many other organs, including the skeletal muscle. In order to gain insight into the role of vitamin D in the skeletal muscle, we performed microarray analysis using C2C12 myoblasts treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), active form of vitamin D. We found multiple genes upregulated by 1,25(OH)2D. Some of them, i.e., vitamin D receptor (Vdr), diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (Dgat1 and Dgat2, the rate limiting steps of triacylglycerol acylation), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (Vegfa), were previously reported to be upregulated by 1,25(OH)2D in C2C12 cells. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed increased mRNA levels of Rarres2, Dio2, Tgm2, Lpl, Mdfi, Igfbp3, Dgat1, Crabp2, Gadd45a, Vagfa, Dgat2, C3, Ldhb, Cebpa, Igfbp5, Mrc2, Vdr. Thus, many genes, including lipid metabolism genes as well as genes related to muscle functions, appear to be upregulated by 1,25(OH)2D in muscle cells.
α-Tocopherol is reported to activate the differentiation and fusion of osteoclast, however, it is not clear whether the excessive intake of vitamin E is a risk for osteoporosis. To investigate the effects of vitamin E and the dietary conditions on the osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast differentiation was evaluated using the bone marrow cells collected from mice fed various dietary conditions. Not only α-tocopherol but also γ-tocotrienol activated osteoclast differentiation in mice fed normal diet. Formation of large multinucleated cells was significantly increased by stimulation of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) in mice fed vitamin E deficient diet and was suppressed by the addition of α-tocopherol. Furthermore, there was no effect on bone density and no difference in osteoclast differentiation from the bone marrow cells collected from mice fed a high-fat diet with 0 or 1,000 mg/kg diet of α-tocopherol and tocotrienol, respectively. These results suggest that different type of diet affect the activation of osteoclast by α-tocopherol.