The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a Ca^<2+> -independent intracellular adhesion in epithelial tissues, and is highly expressed in several cancers. Despite much research on the function of EpCAM in cancers, complete understanding remains elusive. Recent studies have reported the possibility that EpCAM is a cancer stem cell marker. The expression level of cyclin D1 in monolayer cultures of a human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line, HSC-4, was not affected by the depression of EpCAM expression using RNA interference (RNAi). On the other hand, suppression of EpCAM reduced the expression level of cyclin D1 in HSC-4 cells as multicellular aggregates (MCAs). Moreover, it was observed that localization of EpCAM protein in HSC-4 cells was altered between MCAs and monolayers. These results suggest that EpCAM regulates the cell growth of HSC-4 through the cyclin D1 expression under anchorage independent conditions. It is proposed that targeting EpCAM might lead to more useful therapies against oral squamous cell carcinoma.
We investigated the divergence point, path, number, and thickness of arterial, venous and ductal branches in rabbit and human submandibular glands using the acrylic resin injection method. The results for the two species were then examined and compared. Ten submandibular glands were obtained from five rabbits. Eight submandibular glands were removed from eight Chinese patients who underwent functional neck dissection for primary oral squamous cell carcinoma. The rabbit and human submandibular gland corrosion casts were examined with a stereoscopic microscope. Digital images were captured and analyzed with imaging analysis/measurement software. The main arterial, venous and ductal stems reached almost to the center of the gland while decreasing in diameter. The first branches diverged from each main stem at the same points like a tree, and ran parallel to each other in both the rabbits and humans. The second branches diverged from each first branch in the same region like a tree, and ran parallel to each other in both the rabbits and humans. The third branches diverged from the each second branch in a similar pattern for both species. The first, second and third branches of the arteries, veins and ducts all diverged at the same points and ran parallel to each other in both the rabbit and human submandibular glands. The locations of divergence and the course of the arterial, venous and ductal branches in the rabbit submandibular gland were thus extremely similar to those in humans.
Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in the innate immune system through the rapid secretion of cytokines and the ability to lyse virally infected cells or tumor cells. CD2 are surface glycoprotein receptors and important for NK cell activation. Nevertheless, activation of NK92 cells through CD2 crosslinking-stimulation has not been completely understood. Here we analyzed the effects of CD2 crosslinking-stimulation on NK92 cell activation. We confirmed the expression of CD2 on the NK92 cell surface. The majority of NK92 cells expressed CD2 on their cell surfaces. We found that CD2 crosslinking-stimulation enhanced release of granzyme B from NK92 cells. CD2 crosslinking-stimulation markedly induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 compared with nonstimulated NK92 cells. Furthermore, we discovered that tyrosine phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was quickly induced within 1 min in an antibody concentration dependent manner. Mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 is a chemically synthesized organic compound that inhibits activation of ERK1/2. U0126 treatment inhibited the release of granzyme B, compared with CD2 crosslinking-stimulated NK92 cells, in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that CD2 crosslinking-stimulation enhances the release of granzyme B and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which are critical events during NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) plays a significant role in microangiopathy. This study aimed to observe VEGF expression immunohistochemically in the early healing stage of periodontal defects in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) model rats with type 2 diabetes and clarify the relationship between VGEF and microangiopathy in the healing process. We surgically prepared periodontal defects in the maxillary molars of male GK and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The animals were euthanized 3 and 7 days after surgery. Periodontal samples were stained immunohistochemically with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibodies. Other samples were observed with a transmission electron microscope. We found localization of VEGF in the periodontal defect region 3 days after surgery in both groups. VEGF was strongly localized around the vessels of the experimental group and active formation of new vessels was confirmed. Although VEGF was rarely localized around the vessels in the control group 7 days after surgery, localization occurred in the experimental group around capillaries in the periodontal defect region and there was formation of new vessels. VEGF expression in the experimental group was significantly greater than that in the controls, resulting in continuous formation of new, immature blood vessels. These results suggest that microcirculation recovery is delayed in the healing of periodontal defects.
Successful dental implant treatment requires thorough oral self care by the patient, and depends, to a large extent, on improving the patient's understanding and behavior with regard to self care. We developed a personalized oral hygiene instruction program and attempted to demonstrate its clinical utility based on changes in the intraoral environment with the aim of establishing a more effective oral instruction hygiene program than those conventionally offered. Patients were given a CD-ROM containing photos of their mouth and dental casts as well as instructions on how to perform self care, and were instructed to view them on their own personal computers. Changes in their plaque control record (PCR), in the prevalence of sites with pocket probing depths (PPD) of 4 mm or greater, and in bleeding on probing (BOP) were monitored. The results were examined in a retrospective cohort study. We found that patients who participated in the new instruction program exhibited a significant decline in all three outcome measures upon subsequent examination. The findings suggest that our instruction program made it easy for patients to understand their oral condition, and to learn and repeat appropriate self care practices.
We reviewed 49 primary ameloblastoma patients who were examined in the First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of Osaka Dental University between January 1996 and December 2010, and assessed the tumor characteristics and treatment methods based on the 2005 WHO Histological Classification of Odontogenic Tumors. The tumor was an ameloblastoma, solid/multicystic type (A-S/M) in 41 cases and an ameloblastoma, unicystic type (A-U) in the other 8 cases, There were no cases of ameloblastoma, extraosseous/peripheral type (A-E/P) or ameloblastoma, desmoplastic type (A-D). The male to female ratio was 1 : 0.4. The subjects ranged from 6 to 76 years of age, with a mean of 39 years. A-U was common until the 20-29 year age group. The maxilla to mandible ratio of our patients was 1 : 8.8. More than half of the tumors in the mandible were in the molar region, and the frequency of tumors in the ramus of the mandible was almost the same as in the anterior region. Radiographs showed that the unilocular type accounted for approximately half of the tumors, and that the frequency of the multilocular type was the same as the soap-bubble type. The soap-bubble type was more common in the anterior region of the mandible. Conservative treatment was performed in 40 cases (82%) and radical treatment in 9 cases (18%). The recurrence rate was 10% after conservative treatment and 11% after radical treatment. There have been no recurrences in any of the A-U cases. Although conservative treatment is recommended for ameloblastomas, the treatment should be based on each individual case.
Histopathological records of the First Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in Osaka Dental University Hospital were reviewed retrospectively for all odontogenic tumors of the oral cavity and the jaws seen from January 1996 to December 2010. The 186 lesions were all primary cases and classified based on the 2005 WHO odontogenic tumor classification. None of the tumors was malignant. The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) (73 cases, 39%) was the most frequent type, followed by ameloblastoma (AME) (49 cases, 26%), odontoma (OD) (41 cases, 22%), cementoblastoma (CB) (6 cases, 3%) and odontogenic myxoma (OM) (5 cases, 3%). The male to female ratio for the tumors was 1.5 :1. The average age of the patients was 37 years, with a range from 3 to 82 years. There was a peak in the third decade with 37 cases (20%). The maxilla to mandible ratio was 1 : 2.8. The anterior was the most frequent area in the maxilla, while the posterior region was more common in the mandible. Enucleation and curettage (ENC) was the most frequent treatment (67 cases, 39%) followed by enucleation (ENU) (62 cases, 36%). The next most frequent treatment was marsupialization followed by enucleation and curettage (MAR) (30 cases, 17%). Many cases were treated by conservative treatment. There was recurrence in 4 cases of ENC, 6 cases of MAR and one case of marginal resection of the mandible.
When evaluating sequential maxillofacial morphological changes using CT image data obtained at different times, it is essential to normalize the imaging direction of the data at each diagnostic time. Use of the subtraction positioning (SP) method without the need of repeating the previous setting procedures on the CT image data allows reproduction of the previously obtained diagnostic orientations with minimal operation errors. We used CT image data of a dried skull scanned at different times to verify reproducibility of the previously obtained diagnostic direction using the SP method. The morphological differences between the first-determined diagnostic direction and that reproduced in subsequent CT image data were analyzed and compared. We found that the error was within 0.25° and 0.31 mm. Further, we studied how the positional relationship of the common points required in setting the common coordinates influenced the reproducibility of the diagnostic direction when the SP method was used. We found that the position of the reference points affected reproducibility for the diagnostic direction, and that use of the SP method resulted in excellent reproducibility of the CT image data taken at different times.