Journal of Occupational Health
Online ISSN : 1348-9585
Print ISSN : 1341-9145
ISSN-L : 1341-9145
Volume 43 , Issue 1
Showing 1-8 articles out of 8 articles from the selected issue
  • Yukinori KUSAKA, Kazuhiro SATO, Narufumi SUGANUMA, Yutaka HOSODA
    2001 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 1-23
    Published: 2001
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Metal-Induced Lung Disease: Lessons from Japan''s Experience: Yukinori KUSAKA, et al. Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University—Metals inducing occupational respiratory diseases, e.g. metal fever, acute and chronic pneumonia, asthma, bronchitis, chronic obstructive lung disease, pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer are described. The metals mentioned are the following: aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, platinum, rhodium, rare earth metals, titanium, uranium, vanadium, welding, zinc, zirconium. With respect to these metals, mechanism of the disease, disease statistics, case reports, diagnostic methods, patho-physiology of the disease, and preventive measures including occupational exposure limits are also described. Experience in Japan on these issues is given in detail. (J Occup Health 2001; 43: 1-23)
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  • Narufumi SUGANUMA, Yukinori KUSAKA, Yutaka HOSODA, Hisao SHIDA, Hirosh ...
    2001 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 24-31
    Published: 2001
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Japanese Classification of Computed Tomography for Pneumoconioses with Standard Films: Comparison with the ILO International Classification of Radiographs for Pneumoconioses: Narufumi SUGANUMA, et al. Department of Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Fukui Medical University—Objective: Computed tomography (CT) has recently come to be used for personal diagnosis of pneumoconioses and preliminarily for epidemiological purposes. This study aimed to compare the diagnosis of pneumoconioses by the Japanese Classification of CT for Pneumoconioses (Hosoda-Shida Classification) with that by the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses (ILO 1980 standard). The Hosoda-Shida Classification is also described in this article. Subjects and Methods: CT and chest posterior-anterior X-ray (CXR) were performed in 21 subjects with an occupational history of mining, and 6 subject without exposure to any risk of pneumoconiosis. Three radiologists independently described the findings of CT and CXR according to both the Hosoda-Shida Classification and the ILO 1980 standard, respectively. Results: At least two of the three readers agreed in determining both the profusion and the type of small rounded opacities in 96% (26/27) of the CT films. The inter-reader agreement of profusion was satisfactory with the Cohen's weighted kappa value of 0.57 to 0.71. The weighted kappa for CXR and CT in describing the profusion and the type of small rounded opacities were 0.70 and 0.77, respectively. Conclusion: The Hosoda-Shida Classification for pneumoconioses is shown to be reliable and compatible with the ILO 1980 standard in describing the profusion and the type of small opacities. (J Occup Health 2001; 43: 24-31)
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  • Ludovic G.P.M. van AMELSVOORT, Evert G. SCHOUTEN, Arie C. MAAN, Kees A ...
    2001 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 32-38
    Published: 2001
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    24-Hour Heart Rate Variability in Shift Workers: Impact of Shift Schedule: L.G.P.M. van AMELSVOORT, et al. Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University—Disturbance of the circadian pattern of cardiac autonomic control by working at night when the physiological system anticipates rest could explain part of the elevated cardiovascular risk in shift workers. Analysis of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is a non-invasive tool to estimate disturbances of the cardiac autonomic control. To assess the influence of working at night on cardiac autonomic control, HRV levels were determined in shift workers. 24-h ECG recordings were made during a day on morning shift and a day on night shift. Within person differences between a morning and a night shift were calculated. Possible modification of the reported effects by the shift schedule was determined. Significantly elevated mean %LF during sleep was found on a day worked on night shift compared with a day on day shift (%LF + 3.04, P< 0.01). Type of shift schedule was found to be a significant modifier of this effect. The difference in %LF between the night and day shift for the different shift schedules apart were: + 0.88% for the workers in the fast forward rotating shift, + 3.06% for the fast backward rotating shift, + 6.15% (P< 0.001) for the medium speed backward rotating shift and + 1.18% for the shift workers without a regular shift schedule. The results suggest an increased sympathetic dominance during a night shift sleep, indicating an inferior sleep quality. Optimisation of this schedule might diminish this impact and could contribute to a reduction of the cardiovascular disease risk among shift workers. (J Occup Health 2001; 43: 32-38)
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  • Kui-Cheng ZHENG, Makoto ARIIZUMI, Hidemi TODORIKI, Dong-Xiao NONG
    2001 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 39-45
    Published: 2001
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cytokine Profiles in Airways of Rats Exposed to Toluene Diisocyanate: Kui-Cheng ZHENG, et al. Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus—To investigate the status of cytokines in asthmatic airways induced by toluene diisocyanate (TDI), we established a Wistar rat model for asthma, and did a quantitative determination of cytokine production in asthmatic rats induced by TDI. Rats were sensitized with two courses of intranasal application of 10% TDI with each course for seven consecutive days, and then provoked with 5% TDI, and were followed by observation for airway symptoms. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was carried out, and total and differential leucocytes from BAL fluid were counted. Lungs were histopathologically examined for the status of inflammation in the airways. The selected cytokines, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-γ productions, in BAL fluid in vivo and from BAL cells cultured in vitro were quantified with ELISA kits. The results showed that the rats with TDI sensitization exhibited asthmatic symptoms. TDI exposure resulted in an increase in the total number of cells, particularly eosinophils and neutrophils in BAL fluid. Histopathological examination showed a marked infiltration of central and peripheral airways with eosinophils in TDI-exposed rats. In TDI-sensitized rats, the productions of IL-4 and IL-6 in BAL fluid in vivo were markedly increased compared to that in control rats, but production of IL-2 and IFN-γ was similar in the two groups. The cytokines from BAL cells cultured in vitro were released in a similar pattern as in vivo. These findings indicate that IL-4 and IL-6 are predominantly secreted in the airways and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of TDI-induced occupational allergic asthma. (J Occup Health 2001; 43: 39-45)
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  • Masahiro IRIE, Hiroshi MIYAMOTO, Sumiyo ISHIMATSU, Shoji NAGATA, Shin- ...
    2001 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 46-49
    Published: 2001
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Byoung Yong AHN, Young Mann BAAK, Hwang Shin CHANG, Ji Hong Kim, Kyoun ...
    2001 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 50-52
    Published: 2001
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Irene FIGÀ-TALAMANCA, Elio Antonio SALERA
    2001 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 53-55
    Published: 2001
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Exposure to Benzene among Workers in a Petroleum Transport Company: I. FIGÀ-TALAMANCA, et al. Dip.to Biologia Animale e dell''Uomo, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”—The paper reports on the environmental and biological monitoring of a group of 25 male petroleum transport workers. Environmental benzene exposure was monitored through personal sampling devices during one eight hour shift. Biological monitoring involved measurement of benzene and its metabolite trans, trans muconic acid in the urine at the beginning and at the end of the shift on a Monday and again on a Friday. The mean air concentration of benzene detected in the breathing zone of workers exceeded the threshold limit values (TLV) of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) (TLV=1.6 mg/m3) for workers supervising the loading operations of autocisterns. The values observed among the drivers of multiple autocisterns were just below the TLV, whereas those of the drivers of single cisterns were definitely below the TLV. The biological monitoring revealed that the excretion of benzene increases as exposure increases during the work shift, and reaches the highest concentrations at the end of the work week. The excessive exposure of loading supervisors and drivers of multiple cisterns was also confirmed by the findings of the biological monitoring. (J Occup Health 2001; 43: 53-55)
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  • Kiyotaka KOHSHI, Takahiko KATOH, Haruhiko ABE, Toshio OKUDERA
    2001 Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 56-60
    Published: 2001
    Released: March 27, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Neurological Diving Accidents in Japanese Breath-Hold Divers: A Preliminary Report: Kiyotaka KoHSHI, et al. Department of Neurosurgery and Division of Hyperbaric Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health—There have been no reports of diving accidents involving Korean or Japanese professional breath-hold (ama) divers except for our 2 recent cases. We investigated a direct interview survey on their village to determine whether other ama divers had experienced any accidents during or after dives. Interview responses were retrospectively obtained from 16 partially assisted male ama divers belonging to the Utsu Union on Mishima Island, Yamaguchi Prefecture in Japan. We questioned the divers about diving history (diving depth, length of the diving shift, number of dives and diving accidents), medical history (hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, and cerebrovascular diseases) and health habits (smoking and alcohol consumption). Nine of 16 ama divers previously had stroke-like neurological accidents, in which the most common symptom were unilateral motor weakness [7 cases] and sensory abnormalities [4 cases]. All of these neurological problems had manifested transiently. In addition, 13 of 16 divers had occasional episodes of dizziness, nausea and/or euphoria during such dives. Repeated deep breathhold dives may be harmful to the divers and cause brain involvement. (J Occup Health 2001; 43: 56-60)
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