Active learning is a concept that allows students to study and learn actively by themselves to get knowledge. There are several methods of active learning, including flipped classroom (FC) and team-based learning (TBL). In FC, students are required to study before classes. In TBL, students also study before class, take individual readiness assurance test (iRAT) and team readiness assurance test (tRAT), then discuss group assignment projects (GAPs) during class. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness between FC and TBL.
The effectiveness of FC and TBL was assessed from the results of the term-end examinations, questionnaires and practice examinations. To check the difficulty of the term-end examinations, control dentists took the same examinations and we calculated the equating score with item response theory.
Statistical analysis showed that the correct answer rate in term-end examinations was significantly different in comparison with the time of the trial, and for the participants (students and dentists). The term-end examination score of FC and TBL did not show a statistical difference. The student questionnaire showed that TBL had higher scores than FC on various factors such as student positive attitude, preparation, ingenuity of teacher and achieving the class goals. The crown & bridge score from the practice examination of 6th-year students who had FC + TBL were constantly higher than the Japanese national average score. The identification index of FC and TBL did not show the statistical difference and there was no statistical difference on item response theory between FC and TBL.
Inflammatory (M1-polarized) macrophages cause neuropathic pain (NP) after nerve injury through non-resolving neuroinflammation. However, increasing evidence suggests that converting M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages may rescue NP. In the present study, the therapeutic potential
of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) was investigated in a partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL)-
induced NP model. Materials and Methods: Abnormal pain sensation, such as tactile allodynia, was caused by PSL. Immediately after PSL induction, the mice were subjected to LIPUS treatment for 20 min/day for 7 days. LIPUS was used at an average intensity of 60 mW/cm2 and a frequency of 1.5 MHz. Results: In the behavioral test, the LIPUS group showed a significant improvement in the PSL-induced hypersensitivity compared to the PSL group not exposed to LIPUS. We found an increasing number of M2 macrophages in the injured sciatic nerves after LIPUS exposure. LIPUS treatment decreased expression of pro-inflammatory microglial markers in spinal cord. Conclusions: Our data suggest that LIPUS has an anti-nociceptive effect by increasing anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage and may be a suitable therapeutic candidate for NP.