A human cell line (YU-137) isolated from a bone of malignant fibrous histiocytoma in bone was evaluated using immunofluorescent staining methods. Cell cycle fractions were studied by flow cytometry. The magnitude of G2+M fraction in a cell cycle of an exponentially growing population of YU-137 was higher than that observed in HeLa S3 cells. The doubling time of YU-137 cells was 3.2 days. The radiosensitivity of this cell line was compared with HeLa S3 and HMV-1 cells from dose response curves against X-irradiation. The parameters of radiosensitivity of YU-137 against X-irradiation were n=2.0, D0=1.05 Gy and D0=0.73 Gy. From these data, the radiosensitivity of YU-137 was discussed.
A method for evaluating and predicting residual liver function was devised for dynamic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The ratio of residual volume to total effective liver volume, K value and predictive index using dynamic SPECT were compared with respective values using dynamic planar scintigraphy. The coefficients of correlation were 0.86 (the ratio), 0.91 (K value) and 0.88 (predictive index). The predictive index, measured by dynamic SPECT, was as useful as by dynamic planar scintigraphy. In addition, the resecting line using SPECT was more accurate than using planar scintigraphy. Dynamic SPECT was more useful than dynamic planar scintigraphy.
In 98 cases, Ga-67 citrate scintigraphic examination was performed from November 1983 to March 1985 in Kagawa Medical School Hospital. A restrospective evaluation of these cases showed that 38 cases (38.8%) did not meet indication for a Ga-67 study according to HISADA'S criteria. Of these 38 cases a positive Ga-67 uptake was shown in only 5 cases. Although application of Ga-67 detection is limited, many patients appear to receive a Ga-67 study without indication. The expensive Ga-67 study should be performed only in indicative cases.
The purpose of this study is to estimate the coronal and cross sectional appearance of the branching patterns of the pulmonary artery in the left lingula using pulmonary tomography and computed tomography (CT). Eight specimens were analyzed; five were interlobar type (arising from pars interbobaris) and three were mixed type. The mediastinal type (arising from pars mediastinalis) was not seen. In 75% (segmental), and 50% (subsegmental), the branching patterns were estimated radiologically. With radiological findings, the arteries of mediastinal type run to the upper or mediastinal side of the bronchus and the arteries of the interlober type run outside or out-lowerside of the bronchus. It is difficult to estimate the branching patterns of the pulmonary artery in the left lingula because of the oblique projection of the arteries.
A Ga-67 study was performed in a 70 years old man who had hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). High Ga-67 accumulation previously noted in the HCC lesion was not seen after TAE. These findings may provide important clinical informations regarding success of TAE and regarding as a reference for follow up study.
A new method of factor analysis has been devised as a dynamic study in nuclear medicine. Instead of whole sequence factor analysis of images, partially-sequenced images of Kr-81m pulmonary ventilation scintigrams, acquired with respiratory-gated signals, were analysed using this method. Incrementing the first and last frame number of the image sequence, the motion of the factor images, was obtained including diaphragmatic images, thoracic images and physiological pathological dead space, during one respiratory cycle. The varying form of the correlation between two factor images over time provided a distinguishable pattern of patients with pathological conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disese from normal subjects.
Pre-operative CT findings of eight cases of pancreatic carcinoma were compared with the angiographic and operative findings. The vascular invasion of the celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery, portal vein and superior mesenteric vein in CT findings was defined as non-visualization and deformity of the vessels and the indistinctness of the perivascular fatty plane. The accuracy of CT diagnosis was 87.5%. In one case of superior mesenteric arterial invasion, diagnosed by CT and confirmed by surgery, had no evidence of invasion by angiography. CT appears useful for evaluating major vascular invasion in pancreatic carcinoma. Pre-operative accuracy may be improved when angiographic and CT findings are combined.
Four cases of afferent loop obtruction were reported. Billroth II reconstruction was performed in two patients and Roux-Y reconstruction was performed in the other two patients after gastrectomy. Three of four patients complained of jaundice. CT and ultrasonography showed a dumbell-shaped cystic mass anterior to the abdominal aorta on the transverse image, and a cystic mass between the superior mesenteric vessels and the abdominal aorta on saggital view. These patients were not surgical candidates because of their poor condition. We performed the drainage of the afferent loop via a percutaneus transhepatic biliary catheter as a palliative treatment. In one case the serum bilirubin and amylase level decreased to normal range and the patient survived for 80 days. The other two patients died on the 12th and 28th day after the procedure. One patient is currently alive 20 days after the drainage procedure with improvement of clinical symptoms, serum bilirubin and amylase levels.
The ultrasonographic findings in a case of emphysematous cholecystitis were reported. Thick curvilinear high echoes with reverberation and acoustic shadows due to the air were found along the anterior surface of the gall bladder. However, no gas shadow was noted in the right upper abdomen on the plain radiograph. On the following day, an air fluid level in the lumen and a linear gas shadow in the wall of the gall bladder were demonstrated by the plain film and CT. With ultrasonography, it is possible to find small amounts of the air in the gall bladder at an early stage of emphysematous cholecystitis.
A 50 years old housewife presented with complaints of headache and fever. The chest radiograph revealed fine granular shadews in both lung fields on admission. Further examinations were performed including CT and a diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis was made. A few days after admission, neck stiffness, headache, Kernig's sign and other neurological signs rapidly appeared. Tubercle bacillus was detected from the spinal fluid, and a diagsosis of tuberculous meningitis was made. Anti-tuberculous therapy was quickly started, and she had recovered completely 6 months after beginning therapy.
The branching pattern of the pulmonary artery was examined in the autopsied right lung of a 76-year-male, (inflated and fixed lung), in the regions supplied by daughter branches. Ordinarily, the pulmonary arteries are accompanied by the bronchi, but not necessarily by the daughter bronchi. There were two types of branching patterns of the pulmonary artery in the regions be occupied by daughter branches. In one, the pulmonary artery was not accompanied by the daughter bronchi at the beginning of the branch, but was accompanied by the daughter branch in peripheral regions. In the other, some branches of pulmonary artery distributed to the hilar region from neighbouring daughter branch areas. It is very important to consider daughter branches of the pulmonary artery as well as the inherent structure of the lung.
A case was presented of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis which resembled carcinoma of the gallbladder on ultrasonography (US) and CT. The findings of US and CT showed a markedly thick-walled gallbladder with poor definition of boundaries which was similar to the infiltration of carcinoma of the gallbladder. Although a rare entity, xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of carcinoma of the gallbladder.
Ninety-six series of stereoscopic DSA utilized on forty-eight brain tumor patients were evaluated by comparison with subtracted magnified angiograms or independently. All stereoscopic DSA series had good or fairly good stereoscopic quality. Stereoscopic DSA was useful for the pre-operative diagnosis of brain tumors, such as menigniomas, pituitary adenomas, glioblastomas, neurinomas, etc. Stereoscopic DSA was also useful for the evaluation of the post-operative states of these brain tumors. In the near future, stereoscopic DSA may replace many areas of conventional angiography for the diagnosis of brain tumors.
Seventy-one series of stereoscopic DSA utilized on thirty-nine patients with intracranial vascular lesions were evaluated by comparison with subtracted magnified angiograms or independently. All stereoscopic series had good or fairly good stereoscopic quality. Stereoscopic DSA was useful in the preoperative stereoscopic vascular analysis of vascular lesions such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, cartotid-cavernous fistulas, obstructive or stenotic vascular lesions and vascular elongations. Stereoscopic DSA was also useful for evaluation of the post-operative or post-embolization states of these vascular lesions. We think that stereoscopic DSA can replace many areas of conventional angiography for vascular lesions in the near future.
Membrane changes of DAB hepatic carcinoma cells were examined immunohistochemically, using the binding activity of Arachis hypogaea agglutinin (PNA) and anti-liver membrane antibody (anti-LM) from patients with HBsAg-negative chronic active hepatitis. The hepatic carcinoma in rats was produced through DAB feedings for 3-5 months. As controls, non-cancerous liver tissues from rats fed DAB, and normal rat liver were used. In isolated calls of the hepatic carcinoma and control tissues, FITC-PNA binded in 10 of 11 cases of DAB hepatic carcinoma and in none of control cases (11 rats fed DAB and 2 normal rats). In tissue sections, similar results were obtained. Lens culnaris agglutinin did not show any difference in binding among the 3 groups. Two anti-LMs did not bind to the membranes of isolated calls in 3 of 10 DAB hepatic carcinomas, although the anti-LMs were bound in all of controls. These facts indicate that the transformation, DAB hepatic carcinoma cells is accompanied by changes in the cell membrane, and that PNA may be useful in the analysis of membrane changes in carcinogenesis.
A stimulating electrode was stereotactically implanted into the mesencephalic ventromedial tegmentum (VMT) in 15 adult cats. Immediately after stimulation of the VMT, an arrest reaction was observed, followed by contraversive turning and circling, and finally choreoathetoid movements in the contralateral forelimb and oro-bucco-lingual movements. An electrode was implanted in the dentate nucleus contralateral to the VMT in 3 cats. Stimulation of the dentate nucleus produced ipsilateral head tilting, followed by extension, elevation of forelimb and flexion of hindlimb. Electrolytic lesions were made in the dentate nucleus and thalamic VL-nucleus. Choreo-athetoid movements were diminished in dentatomized cats, and disappeared in VL-thalamotomized cats, but these lesions had no effects on bucco-lingual movements. To investigate the passing fibers in the VMT, horseradish peroxidase (Sigma type VI 0.060.08ul) was injected into the VMT in 12 cats. Labeled cells were found in the contralateral dentate nucleus, in the interposed nucleus, in the ipsilateral head of caudate nucleus and in the putamen. These results suggest that fibers passing through the VMT play an important role in the production of dyskinesias. Choreo-athetoid movements of limbs might be produced mainly by excitation of nigro-striatal and strio-pallido-thalamic pathways facilitated by the dentatethalamic pathway. These pathways are not involved in the production of bucco-lingual movements.
The stimulation of steroidogenesis by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and adenosine 3'-5' monophosphate (cyclic-AMP) was investigated in in vitro systems. Temperature is one of the most important elements for cell culture and affects various biological cell functions. In this study, the effects of various temperatures (32-43°C) on the stimulation of steroidogenesis by ACTH and cyclic AMP in the murine adrenal tumor cell (Y-1) were investigated. After Y-1 cells were cultured at 32-43°C for 48 hours, most of the population survived. Y-1 was insensitive to high temperature during 48 hours. When cells were incubated at 32°C, steroids in the medium could not be detected, but at 33-39°C, steroid amounts increased linearly with increasing temperature. At 41°C or higher, steroid secretion decreased drastically. Although the stimulation of steroidogenesis by ACTH was accelerated sharply at 33°C, stimulation by cyclic AMP may be gradually increased until 39°C. These data suggest that this may be caused by different action sites of ACTH and cyclic AMP. More studies indicated that ACTH binds to the plasma membrane and activated adenyl cyclase, but cyclic AMP function required binding to the specific cytosol receptor.
Primary culture of human primary liver cancer tissues treated with or without trancatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was perfomed with the following results. 1. The yield and viability were very low in cells from primary liver cancer tissues dissociated with enzymes. 2. Epithelial-like cells were found from TAE-treated cancer tissues at a ratio of 1/8 in both monolayer and explant culture and from TAE-nontreated tissues at a ratio of 4/12 in monolayer culture and 3/12 in explant culture. The AFP-producing capahity of these epithelial-like cells has been maintained from one week to one month in culture. 3. Cells derived from two TAE-nontreated cancer tissues were subculturable. One was established as a cholangiocellular carcinoma cell line. 4. No heterotransplantability of primary cultured cancer cells into nude mice was found.
Clinical and radiological studies were performed on forty total hip replacements (THR) (38 patients) using bone graft acetabuloplasty. Using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association hip score, the mean preoperative total score improved from 41.3 to 84.6 points 1 year postoperatively, and slightly decreased to 84.1 point by the mean follow-up period of 4 years and 5 months. By radiological evaluation, the setting angle of the socket was an almost ideal angle (41.5°) and the mean Sharp angle was 44.5°C pre-operatively and 33.3° post-operatively. The lesser trochanter was lowered to the normal position, and therefore leg length was corrected to almost equal. The size of the grafted bone was about 1/32/3 of the femoral head of the other side, and the resected femoral head was suitable for grafted bone. The grafted bone was united about 3 months after the operation. Prosthetic loosening reached stage II in the socket side by Uno's classification, but on the stem side, Müller type showed an increased rate. Bone graft acetabuloplasty was an useful method to set the socket at the ideal position in THR of dysplastic hips.
Expression of mRNA in monolayer cells transfected with recombinant DNA was demonstrated by in situ hybridization with biotin- or 32P-labeled probes. The biotin-labeled probe and hybrid detection system used in this study could detect 1 pg of target DNA and a single copy gene in mammalian cells using filter hybridization techniques. Several conditions of in situ hybridization were optimized with neomycin resistant (neor) cells, which constitutively expressed neor mRNA derived from pSV2neo. The proteolytic digestion was found to be the most critical procedure. The in situ hybridization demonstrated that neor mRNA was localized in the cytoplasm of the neor cells. Cf2Th cells derived from a canine fetal thymus cell were transfected with the cloned provirus genome of a retrovirus produced in a human lymphoblastoid cell line, and transient expressions of viral RNA and antigens were monitored by in situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase staining, respectively. About 48 hours after transfection, several percent of the transfected cells were positive for expression of both viral RNA and antigens by these cytochemical methods. These observations indicate that in situ hybridization is a useful method for detecting the expression of the gene introduced into mammalian cells.
A new micro determination of urinary protein using Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 (CBB) and sulfosalicyl acid containing agar plates was devised. The correlation between the concentration of urinary protein using CBB colorimetry and that using our staining method on agar plate was determined. 1. Assay procedure 1.5g of agar was disselved 90ml of water while waring at 60°C (solution A) 0.005g CBB was disselved into 5ml of water (solution B) solution A and solution B and were mixed and wate was added to a final volume of 100ml. For urinary protein determination, 15μl of urine were spotted on agar plate. After 15 minutes, colored spots were evaluated. For the semiquantitative determination, the plate was dried at 37°C for 30 minutes and spots were compared wdth a standard spot using the naked eye. For the quantitative determination, the plate was dried at 37°C for 30 minutes and spots were analyzed with a densitometer. 2. The newly devised CBB method is convenient for micro assay of urinary protein. The urine samples can be determined in small amounts and the method is simple highly sensitive and highly accurate. Many urine specimens can be measured in a field survey. Result can be stored for long periods of time after blotting into writing menbrane-filter. 3. This method is in the range of 1.2%4.5% in producing good date, tab proside piad has excellent reproducibility an average recovery of 98.8±4.9%.
The selection of effective maximal expiratory was evaluated using discriminant analysis of asthmatic patients and healthy adults in this review. Maximal expiratory volume-time and flow-volume (MEVT and MEFV) curves were drawn for young non-smoking healthy subjects and for young male non-smoking asthmatic patients. Eleven indices, two MEVT (%FVC and FEV1.0%), six MEFV (PEFR, Flow75, Flow50, Flow25, Flow10 and Flow50/Flow25) and three mean time constant (MTC) indices (MTC75-50, MTC50-25 and MTC25-RV) were used for the discriminant analysis using an all possible selection procedure (APSP). In the eleven-indices discriminant analysis using a single index, Flow75, Flow50 and Flow25 were effective indices. In the discriminant analysis through APSP, PEFR, Flow75, MTC75-50 and FEV1.0%, which were at high lung volumes, were the set of the most effective four indices. These four indices appear to be effective in assessing bronchial asthma through a visual evaluation of MEFV curves. Therefore, discriminant analysis is appropriate in assessing the MEFV curves.
Although serological methods or culture methods of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) from throat washings are used for diagnosis of Mp infection, the patient is often discharged from the hospital before definitive results can be obtained. Therefore we have developed a rapid detection from patients' throat smears by immunofluorescence with anti-rabbit IgG. Antibody specificity to Mp and the difference of titers between each lot have been a problem, because of polyclonal antibody which is prepared by immunizing a rabbit. Two hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies to Mp were obtained by fusion of spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized by Mp antigen with myeloma cells (X63-Ag8-6. 5. 3.). The high specificity to Mp of these monoclonal antibodies produced by the hybridomas was affirmed ELISA, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. A few cross-reactions were recognized by ELISA between Mp antigen and other Mycoplasma antigens. No cross-reactivity was found by indirect immunofluorescence. Throat smears from 4 patients suffered from Mp infection were examined by immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibody. Specific immunofluorescence was seen in all smears. Both granular and diffuse types of fluorescence were seen in smears from case 1 and 2. Only diffuse type was found in smears from case 3 and 4. Monoclonal antibodies can be obtained at any time and amount. The method may be useful and convenient for the rapid diagnosis of Mycoplasmal pneumonia.
The ultrastructure of flagella of enteropathogenic E. coli was analysed by electron microscopy. The flagella of E. coli 0126, 026, 0114 and 0128, each of which have different H antigen types, were tentatively classified into four types according to their ultrastructural similarity. The appearence of most flagella structures were homologous in each H type and identical with a previous report (Lawn, AM, 1977). However, the structure of H31, H25 and H48 were different from the previous ones and H11 (026K60) and H25 (026K60) showed two different types of flagella structure in a single H type. Immuno-electron microscopy using gold-labeled anti-rabbit IgG goat antibody disclosed that there were anti H type sera reactive flagella and non reactive flagella in both Hll and H25, although the molecular weight of each flagellin showed one homologous band by SDS-PAGE. The result suggests that there is a certain diversity in the manner of self assembly of flagellin to form flagella structures.
The isolation ratio of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) from urinary tract infections have increased remarkably recently, but the exact identifications CNS, which are classified into 17 species, have not been well examined in clinical laboratories. We isolated and identified the species of CNS from patients with urinary tract infections and compared this with the pattern of species isolated from urethral openings (UO) of non-infected females. The incidence of CNS infection in complicated urinary tract infection (C-UTI) was 9.4% (41/438). Only CNS was isolated in 21 out of 41 cases (58.8%). These data suggest that CNS may be causative pathogens of urinary tract infection. The isolated CNS comprined S. epidermidis (51.4%), S. haemolyticus (24.5%) and some others (a few percent each) in cases of C-UTI. On the other hand, in UO from the non-infected control group, S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus predominated. The incidence of the CNS species in C-UTI and UO of noninfected females was similar, and CNS which reside in the UO may ralate to the pathogens in C-UTI.
The formation of methemoglobin from hemoglobin by nitrite ion in the erythrocytes of normal and acatalasemic mice and that in the erythrocytes of both mice injected with nitrite ion were studied. The formation of methemoglobin from hemoglobin by nitrite ion in red cells with or without the addition of glucose in vitro was also studied. Methemoglobin concentration in red cells of acatalasemic mice after the addition of NaNO2 was higher than that in red cells of normal mice. The addition of glucose inhibited the formation of methemoglobin from hemoglobin by nitrite ion. Methemoglobin concentration in the blood of mice injected with NaNO2 (1550μg/g) was determined. The results indicated that methemoglobin concentration in the blood of acatalasemic mice is higher than that in the blood of normal mice. These results indicated that the formation of methemoglobin from hemoglobin by nitrite ion appears to be controlled by the activity of blood catalase.
The acid and alkaline stability of blood catalase in anemic blood was examined with hemolysates and a crude catalase solution prepared by DEAE column from hemlysates. The results obtained follow. 1. The acid stability of catalase in the hemolysates decreased, in order in acatalasemic, heterozygous hypocatalasemic and normal mice. The acid stability of catalase in the crude enzyme solution from the hemolysates of acatalasemic mice was lower than that of normal or heterozygous hypocatalasemic mice. 2. The acid stability of catalase activity in the hemolysates of blood rich in reticulocytes obtained from anemic acatalasemic mice was higher than that of normal mice. In contrast, the acid stability of catalase in the crude enzyme solution from hemolysate of anemic acatalasemic mice was lower than that of normal mice. 3. Methemoglobin formation in acatalasemic mice's hemolysates in acid solution was more than in normal mice hemolysate. 4. From these results, the acid stability of catalase activity in acatalasemic hemolysates of anemic mice appears to be mainly caused by catalase like activity of methemoglobin. 5. The alkaline stability of catalase at pH 8.0 and 9.0 of both the catalase in the hemolysate and its crude catalase solution from non-anemic mouse blood decreased, in order, from normal, heterozygous hypocatalasemic and acatalasemic mice. 6. The alkaline stability of catalase in the hemolysate and its crude catalase solution from anemic acatalasemic mice were lower than that from normal mice. 7. The acid and alkaline stability of catalase in crude catalase solution from anemic blood of normal and acatalasemia mice was compared to those from non-anemic blood. Catalase from anemic blood was more stable than that from non-anemic blood of acatalasemic mice. A similar tendency to acatalasemia catalase was observed in normal catalase mice.