The statistic observations were made about the inpatients and out-patients of the department of oral surgery, okayama university medical school during full five years from July in 1950 to June in 1955. The out-patients were classified into those of inflammation (pulpitis and gingivitis excepted), of caries (which was divided into what needed canal treatment and what was not so serious), of pyorrhea alveolaris, of gingivitis, of tumour, and of other diseases, and then each disease group was observed according to the difference year, season, tooth, sex, age, and occupation. Thereby, comparatively remarkable, interesting, statistical, numeral values were not only obtained concerning to each disease, but also the characteristics of the department of oral surgery of the attached hospitals of our government universities were apparently recognized here also. As the total number of the in-patients was only 237, the detailed statistical report being reserved, they were observed only according to the difference of year and disease. Thereby, inflammation and tumour were so many that they occupied about 80% of the number of all the in-patients.
1) The variation of measurement of the brain water content caused by the different concentration of the cobaltchloride solution was estimated. The solutions of 9.58g/dl, 9.8g/dl, 10.0g/dl, 10.3g/dl and 10.6g/dl were used upon the same material. 2) The free water content increased according to the dilution of the solution in normal cases. 3) A similar result to the normal one was seen in cases of the brain edema, but more distinctly. 4) The eobaltchloride method was compared with the drying method in normal cases. 10.0g/dl solution showed the most similar result to the drying method. 5) The water content, became more in the case using weaker solution than 10.0g/dl. Using a higher concentration, the brain would be dehydrated and the brain swelling might be overlooked. 6) From the above-mentioned the 10.0g/dl solution is the best to be used.
1) The variation of the brain water content caused by the acute venous and arterial bleeding from the upper sagittal sinus and the common carotid artery and by acute cerebral congestion after ligation of the internal jugular vein was estimated in each part of the cerebral cortex, white substance, brain stem and cerebellum. The free, bound and total water of the brain were measured directly after the operation and then 10 minutes, 1, 3 and 6 hours after the opeartion, using Hatschek's cobaltchloride method. 2) There was seen a maximal increase of the free and total water in every parts since the time of acute venous bleeding, and it tended to decrease as time elapsed. 3) The free and total water content in every part increased since the opeartion of acute arterial bleeding, but it reached to the maximal after 60 minutes and then fixed. 4) The free and total water content increased directly after the acute brain congestion and increased with the time gradually. 5) The increase of the brain water content always depended upon the free water, and no increase of the bound water was seen; namely we found always the edematous type. 6) The quantitative variation of brain water content with the time in cases of arterial and venous bleeding and congestion was identified by the difference of each mechanism of brain edema. It seemed that there was no essential qualitative difference of the completed state of brain edema. 7) The brain water content increased more distinctly in the white matter and the brain stem than the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum.
The author in 1947 had an opportunity to come across a patient suffering from the ulcer of stomach having signs suggestive of gastric syphilis and by giving intermuscular injection treatment of bismuth subsalicylate in oil had obtained quite favorable results. During the treatment it was discovered that the conditions of the patient had turned for the better about the time when bismuth deposited on the gum of the Patient. So it was thought that one of course of improvement could be attributed to swallowing bismuth secreted into saliva. Consequently this is not same as the medical effects of the usual bismuth treatment. Thereupon, the author employed the intermuscular injection treatment of bismuth instead of the usual oral administration of bismuth to the patients with gastric and duodenal ulcers, expecting and relying on the favorable result of swallowing down bismuth secreted into saliva. During six years 118 cases of gastric and duodenal ulcers have been treated with the same method and obtained relatively satisfactory results without any notable complications. Further in all six incurable cases their extirpated stomach was opened and examined under the direction of Prof. Hamazaki, and each one of them had such lesion as perforated ulcer, stomach cancer, or stenosis of the pylorus, everyone of which requires a surgical operation. The author entertains an idea that in the intermuscular treatment of bismuth subsalicylate in oil bismuth is secrected into saliva. By various tests and experiments the author found out that the secretion of bismuth continual for six years in the longer cases, and it has given unusually favorable effects for gastric ulcer. However, this latter point is going to be reported in Part Two.
In part, II the author investigated the histological staining possibilities of various bismuth compounds and then, by the intramuscular injections, verified the distribution of bismuth in the tissues of the stomach and of the duodenum both in men and rabbits. It was noticed that the conditions of the recipients (men and rabbits) received the injection had turned for the better with the continuous decrease in the acidity of the gastric juice. The cause of these changes was histopathologically found to be due not only to the direct action of Bismuth contained saliva on the ulcer but also to the chemical reaction between bismuth and gartric acid, and thus apparently to a beneficial effect of bismuth on the function of the stomach tissue-cells. By this experiment, it is considered that water-soluble bismuth tartarate which absorbed or secreted quite rapidly is rather harmful than the more slowly absorbed and secreted one like oil-soluble bismuth subsalicylate. So I believe that the latter is more suitable for the treatment of the gastric ulcers. Moreover, the chemical quantitative value of bismuth in the tissues of man suggests that this substance (bismuth subsalicylate) will be slowly and protractedly absorbed and secreted, and consequently acts on the gastric tissue for a considerably long period. The present investigation has proved that intramuscular injection of bismuth subsalicylate will act gradually for a long time and that, when once administered, bismuth subsalicylate is continuously effective for the gastric and duodenal ulcers.
Of late, parathion has come to be used as a priventives, to annihilate? larva of pearl moth; there happened occasionally, as well known, cases of poisoning due to this use. With some experiments in which parathion emulsion (ethyl-parathion 46.647.0%) was given to a rabbit, as well as consulted human cases in which such a great number of it has been staged as to amount even to 43, which were selected out of parathion sprayers and factory workers, containing 20 mild cases, 11 moderate cases and 12 serious cases, probably maximum number ever treated, the blood cholinesterase activity was measured due to Ammon's method thus examining with its clinical symptoms, and arrived at such results al follows: 1. In case poisoned by parathion, blood cholinesterase activity apt to show a marked descent. Considering both cholinesterase function as well as certain clinical symptoms, the actual state of this disease is ascribed to lie in the inhibition of cholinesterase activity. 2. The inhibition of blood cholinesterase may be introduced as a very unique aspect and significant feature encountered in our diagnose. 3. The primary rate of cholinesterase inhibition and the seriousness of disease go parallel. 4. In dividing the degree of seriousness shown by patients into latent poisoning, mild one, moderate, as well as serious, their blood cholinesterase activities are proved respectively; 10050%, 5020%, 2010%, and below 10%. 5. Classifying those clinical symptoms shown by patients into several stages, may contribute somewhat to the benefit in their treatment.
Parathion, though mainly having a function as nervous poison, has been investigated for its effect on the liver. By having taken resort to reactions such as follows as to both experimental animals as well as patients so many as 43, including 20 mild cases, 11 moderate and 12 serious, i.e., Takata's reaction, cobalt reaction, Gros' test, Sawada's test, Thymol turvidity test, Cephalincholesteral flocculation test, Weltmann's reaction, Meulengradt's test, H. v. d. Bergh's test on serum, bilirubin, urobilin and urobilinogen test on urin, bromsulphalein test, santonin test, galactose test, and pathological anatomical examination, was proved the following facts; those results indicate no other disturbances except positive urobilinogen reaction. This even may probably be supposed to have turned positive due to irritating of parasympathicus. There was no room to consider mishaps such as liver swelling or jaundice. From clinical aspect, therefore, there seems to be no need for any consideration about liver disturbance.
The actual state of things was clarified in the 1st chapter, by having taken investigations in so numerous pathological cases as 43, along with plenty of animal tests. Then, in-taking consideration for the present importance of parathion poisoning, the virtue of certain medical compounds for this poisoning especially important for clinics was examined systematically and at the same time, certain fixed criteria for treatment reduced from those tested cases was determined; above all, some standards for use of atropin was established. 1. By administering some medical compounds mainly thought effective towards autonomous nervous system, especially anti-acetylcholin, and antidote to a mouse and rabbit poisoned by parathion, took observations on those changes that have occurred to death rate, change of blood cholinesterase and other symptoms. 2. On examination by animal tests, upon the effects indicated by Atropin, Finalin, T. E. A. B., Banthine, Glucuron acid, Sodium thiosulfate and B. A. L., toward parathion-poisoning, found out atropin as best, B. A. L. next; while, certain merit could be proved by sodium thiosulfate and Finalin. 3. Atropin seems to give slightly felt effect on the cholinesterase inhibitoy function caused by parathion. 4. From those results obtained in treating by atropin many cases of parathion-poisoning patients 10 of which looked serious, superiority of a large dose of atropin was recognized, and then I established certain criterion of atropine treatment on parathion-poisoning.
Phosphorus metabolism in lung, spleen and kidney was investigated in connection with the virus infection. For this purpose radioactive P32 was employed as the tracer and its incorporation and distribution were examined on three organs of the infected mouse. The mice were intracerberally inoculated and various hours after the inoculation they were intraperitoneally injected with adequate amounts of P32. Twelve hours after the injection of P32 each of the lung, spleen and the kidney was fractionated by Schneider's method, respectively. Acid soluble fractions, phospholipid fractions and nucleic acid-phospho protein fractions were obtained and examined on their radioactivities. Remarkable incorporation of P32 to the nucleic acid phospho protein fractions of lung, spleen and kidney of the infected mouse was observed just at the incubation stage or the so-called visceral phase of Japanese B Encephalitis. This seems to imply that rapid metabolic changes in nucleic acid and phospho protein or other related substances take place in these organs at the visceral phase oo Japanese B Encephalitis.
Somewhat detailed knowledge was obtained on the nucleic acid metabolism in lung, spleen and kidney of the infeeted mouse P32 was used as the tracer and was injected to each mouse intraperitoneally various hours after the intracerebral inoculation of the virus. 6 and 24 hours after the injection of P32 the organs were collected and fractionated by Schmidt-Thanhauser's method into RNA-phosphoprotein fraction and DNA fraction, which were then examined on their radioactivities. Just at the incubation stage or the visceral phase of Japanese B encephalitis the organs, lung, spleen and kidney, of the mouse proved to have high radioactivities, both in their RNA-phosphoprotein fractions and DNA fractions. It is interesting to note that the radioactivity in DNA fraction was observed to increase rather late in the incubation stage while the other appeared from the first of that stage on. The fact that in case of spleen higher radioactivity of RNA-phosphoprotein fraction than that of DNA fraction was observed should further be pointed out. In contrast to this, the high radioactivities in acidsoluble fractions also observed at the mcubation stage remained unaltered even at the acme stage of the disease.
1. A case of congenital defect of the extrahepatic bile ducts is described. Soon after birth the baby showed some characteristic manifestations of the obliteration of the bile ductsuch as jaundice, enlargement of the liver, hemorrhagic diathesis, discolored grayish feces and deeply colored urine with bilirubin but no urobilins, and died four months after birth. 2. Autopsy revealed the defect of the extrahepatic hepatic ducts and the common bile duct. No communication was proved between the intrahepatic bile ducts and the duodenum. The gall bladder was found to be attached to the duodenum by a slender and atrophic cystic duct, but not communicated with the intrahepatic bile ducts. 3. Concerning this malformation a discussion and a brief review of literatures are made on the mechanism of development, classification of types and the chief symptoms.
This experiment was conducted with the object of finding out the instinct of smoothrough type variation, a form of bacterial variation. A comparison was made using organisms S. typhi 57-S, and 57-R, which was isolated from it. The method of experiment was mainly with Warburg manometer to measure O2 uptake and CO2 evaluation when various substrates were used with bacteria developed on agar platte medium and semi-synthetic medium. Furthermore, the influence of inhibiter on them was examined to arrive at the difference of metabolism of the both types from the experimental results. The results were as follows: 1. The difference of metabolism of S-type and R-type bacteria, is an analysis of glucose which was found to be active until it became pyruvic acid. 2. S-type bacterium analyzes mainly by glucose and Embden-Meyerhof pathway. 3. R-type bacterium, in addition to glucose analysis and Embden-Meyerhof pathway, analyzes by glucose dehydrogenase system and Warburg-Dickens pathway. 4. It is concluded from the foregoing that if S-type bacterium changes to R-type bacterim, aerobic metaboliem system will develop.
This experiment was conducted with the object of finding out the instinct of smoothrough type variation, which is a form of bacterial variation. Organisms used were same as Report 1-S. typhi 57-S and its isolated 57-R. Experimental method was the measurementof O2 uptake and CO2 evaluation by use of Warburg manometer, and at the same timedetection of production by quantitative and paper chromatography of the various substrates. The results were as follows; 1. In type-S bacterium mainly glucose was analyzed by Embden-Meyerhof pathway. The amount of production of pyruvic acid from glucose under the system in which complete analysis was inhibited with addition of KCN, was twice that of R-type bacterium. 2. Under the same experiment of type-S bacterium, the production of glucose was detected by paper chromatography to be pyruvic acid only. 3. In type-R bacterium, mainly glucose was analyzed by Warburg-Dickens pathway. The amount of production of pyruvic acid from glucose under the system in which complete analysis was inhibited with addition of KCN, was one-half that of S-type bacterium. 4. Under the same experiment of type-R bacterium, the production of glucose was detected by paper chromatography to be, in addition to pyruvic acid, gluconic acid which is believed to be the result of glucose dehydrogenase system. Also, pyruvic acid was found in the production of gluconic acid. From the above experiment it was found that if S-type bacterium changes to R-type, Warburg-Dickens pathway and glucose dehydrogenase system will develop.
A complets survey for intestinal helminthes was undertaken of the employees of the Okayama factory of the Kurashiki Rayon Manufacturing Company by direct smear method during a period of four years from 1952 through 1955. The helminthes found include Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Tricuris trichiura and Enterobius vermicularis. The incidence of intestinal helminthiasis showed an yearly decline from the peak in 1952. However, because of the high incidence among the new employees the annual decline of the total is gradual.
Using chick blood cells, the author investigated the Hemagglutination with the supernatants of the emulsized organs of hamsters infected with rickettsia, and obtained following results; I) The supernatants of emulsized organs of hamsters inoculated with Rikettsia prowazeki showed the maximum hemagglutination titer of 259X eight to ten days after inoculation, with those of rickettsiae mooseri showed the maximum titer of I25X six to seven days after inoculation. 2) The antigen with the highest hemagglutiutination antigenicity was gained from the livrs of the acme of infection. Its hemagglutination antigenicity and the development of the disease showed the parallel relationship. 3) This antigens cause the strongest hemagglutination at pH 7.0 to 7.5 and at the low temperature of 5° fo 10°C. 4) The hemagglutination by the antigens of Rickettsiae prowazeki and mooseri was inhibited by each antirikettsial rabbit serum and showed fairly high specificity. 5) The inhibition action on hemagglutination by the sera of guinea pigs infected with rickettsia prowazeki and mooseri runs parallel with the development of the disease, especially with fever of the infected guinea pigs.
The author investigated the development of neutralization antibodies immunized with virulent rickettsiae, and also tried the investigation of differences of antigenicities among the rickettsiae by cross neutralization tests. Two groups of strains were used for these experiments, one group is three newly isolated strains-two strains (No. IV and XXII) of original summer type of tsutsugamushi disease from rats and one strain of the winter type of the same disease from patients, and the other group is the three known control strains- original summer type (Oseki), winter type (Osawa) and Carp(New Guinea). 1) The maximum production of neutralization antibodies in the immunized rabbits was observed five to seven weeks after the inoculation for the group of newly isolated strains, and ten weeks for the group of the known control strains; the neutralization logarithm for the former was 2.2 to 2.6 and that for the latter was 4.5 to 60. 2) By cross neutralization tests, fairly clear differences of type were observed among the newly isolated strains, and also among the known control strains. It was sometimes very hard, however, to divide the whole of the newly isolated and known control strains into several groups according to the type differneces.
The mice, pre-immunized by the subcutaneus inoculation of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, were intraabdominally reinoculated with the same strain. The author tried to investigate the resistance against reinoculation by observing the proliferation of the rickettsia, which was estimated by the infections titer. of the animal livers. The results are as follows; 1) The mice, reinoculated on the second and seventh day after the first inoculation, showed a fairly high resistance of the same degree. The highest resistance was observed on the fifteenth day, and on the thirty-second day the resistance somewhat falled, but on the fifty-fourth day it rised again. At this case, the neutralization antibodies in mice were observed to fairly high on the thirty-second day, and increased more on the fifty-fourth day. 2) The same experiment was carried out on the forty-seventh. fifty-second, sixtieth, seventy-second and ninety-nineth day after the first inoculation. The resistance against intraabdominal reinoculation was the highest on the forty-seventh day, the next on the fifty-second day and then falled to a certain degree, which persisted for pretty long time.
The antigen quantities in blood and urine of rabbits, intravenously injected with crystalline hen's egg albumin and egg white, were measured by immunological methods. The natures of urinary excreted antigens were studied by filter-paper electrophoretic method. The results were as follows: 1) Intravenously injected crystalline hen's egg albumin disappeared from the circuration in 7 days after injection. 2) Urinary excreted antigen almost disappeared in 9 days after injection. 3) Antibody formation began on the 3rd day and reached to the maximum in 6-7 days after the injection of antigen. 4) The filter-paper electrophoretic pattern of urinary excreted antigens, at 1 hour after injection, showed one component. This component moved on the electrophoretic filter paper the same rate as Al-peak of original crystalline hen's egg albumin. The pattern of urinary excreted antigen at 24 hours after injection, showed two components, the fast and the slow moving ones. The antigenicities of extracts of these two components were measured by the immune reaction against anti-crystalline hen's egg albumin rabbit sera, to determine the quality of these components. The rate of antigenicity of the fast moving component to the slow moving one was 3.2:1. From these results, it was inferred that the fast moving component was egg albumin, while the slow moving one was denatured egg albumin. 5) The filter-paper electrophoretic pattern of urinary excreted antigens at 24 hours after injection of egg white, showed almost one component. And the antigenicity of the extract of this component was measured by the immune reaction against anti-crystalline hen's egg albumin rabbit sera. From above experiments, it was demonstrated that only egg albumin was excreted inurine, while the other components of egg white were not excreted in urine.
The procedures of filter-paper electrophresis and extraction from it, were employed to determine the distribution of antibodies. The following results were obtained: 1) Antibodies of anti-crystalline hen's egg albumin rabbit sera were found in γ-globulin fraction and slightly in β-globulin fraction. 2) Antibodies of anti-goat red blood cells rabbit sera were found in γ-globulin fraction. 3) Antibodies of anti-hen's red blood cells rabbit sera were found in γ-globulin fraction. 4) Forssman's antibody of rabbit sera was found in γ-globulin (γ1-globulin) fraction, and slightly in β-globulin fraction. These facts were also demonstrated by salting-out method. 5) Antibodies of anti-“bacillus coli communis” rabbit sera were found in γ-globulin and somewhat in β-globulin fraction. 6) Antibodies of anti-A and anti-B blood cells human sera were found in γ-globulin fraction.
The distribution of the components of complement has been studied by the extracting method after filter-paper electrophoresis of guinea-pig serum. Then the following results have been obtained: 1) Mid-piece (C'1) is inactivated by filter-paper electrophoresis in 3 hours, 0.3mA/cm. So the distribution of mid-piece is not able to make clear. 2) End-piece (C'2) is contained in α-globulin fraction of guinea-pig serum. 3) The third component (C'3) distributes mainly in (β-, γ-globulin, and a portion in α-globulin. 4) The fourth component (C'4) is contained mainly in α-globulin, and a portion in β-globulin.